How to cite this article:
Fan Gaskin JC, Nguyen DQ, Soon Ang G, O'Connor J, Crowston JG. Wound Healing Modulation in Glaucoma Filtration Surgery–Conventional Practices and New Perspectives: The Role of Antifibrotic Agents (Part I). J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014; 8 (2):37-45.
Glaucoma filtration surgery is regularly performed for the treatment of glaucoma and trabeculectomy is often regarded as the ‘gold standard’ glaucoma operation. The biggest risk of failure of the operation is bleb scarring. The advent of anti-fibrotic agents, such as mitomycin C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) has vastly prolonged the longevity of the bleb, but concerns remain regarding the potential increase in postoperative complications. More selective therapeutic targets have therefore been explored. One of these is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhi bition has a role not only in sub conjunctival angiogenesis inhi bition but also it has direct anti-fibrotic properties. Newer phar macological compounds and materials have also been developed in recent years in attempt to modulate the wound healing in different ways after glaucoma surgery. These include physical barriers to scarring and vehicles for sustained release of pharmacological agents, and early promising results have been demonstrated. This two-part review will provide a discussion of the application of anti-fibrotic agents in glaucoma filtration surgery and evaluate the newer agents that have been developed.
Jennifer C Fan Gaskin,
Dan Q Nguyen,
Ghee Soon Ang,
Jonathan G Crowston
How to cite this article:
Fan Gaskin JC, Nguyen DQ, Soon Ang G, O'Connor J, Crowston JG. Wound Healing Modulation in Glaucoma Filtration Surgery– Conventional Practices and New Perspectives: Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Novel Agents (Part II). J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014; 8 (2):46-53.
Glaucoma filtration surgery is regularly performed for the treatment of glaucoma and trabeculectomy is often regarded as the ‘gold standard’ glaucoma operation. The biggest risk of failure of the operation is bleb scarring. The advent of antifibrotic agents, such as mitomycin C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) has vastly prolonged the longevity of the bleb, but concerns remain regarding the potential increase in postoperative complications. More selective therapeutic targets have therefore been explored. One of these is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition. VEGF inhibition has a role not only in subconjunctival angiogenesis inhibition but also it has direct anti-fibrotic properties. Newer pharmacological compounds and materials have also been developed in recent years in attempt to modulate the wound healing in different ways after glaucoma surgery. These include physical barriers to scarring and vehicles for sustained release of pharmacological agents, and early promising results have been demonstrated. This two-part review will provide a discussion of the application of anti-fibrotic agents in glaucoma filtration surgery and evaluate the newer agents that have been developed.
Complementary and alternative medicine deserves scientific scrutiny as patients with glaucoma often lose vision despite adequate medical or surgical treatment. Most glaucomatologists abstain from recommending alternative medicine as there is little evidence to support most of the recommendations for complementary and alternate management (CAM) use in glaucoma. Megavitamin supplementation has not been shown to have a long-term beneficial effect on glaucoma. In a glaucomatous eye, a very modest benefit of IOP-lowering may be offset by the temporary elevation in IOP that accompanies exercise. There is little evidence to support the use of special diets, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, or therapeutic touch for the treatment of glaucoma. Marijuana can have a profound lowering of IOP, but the low response rate, short half-life, and significant toxicity are strong indicators that it is not an appropriate therapeutic agent. Future research must be carried out to document the effect of CAM not only on IOP, but also on perimetric tests or other objective parameters, such as ocular blood fow and nerve fiber layer thickness.
Young patients are more prone to ocular trauma but most of the published studies describe complicated cataract as a result of trauma with its treatment modality. As a result, little is known about the different causes, common presenting signs and symptoms, visual outcomes, and most frequent management modalities of traumatic glaucoma in children. This review aims to study the demographical profile, presentation, management and outcome of traumatic glaucoma in children as well as the various factors associated with advanced glaucomatous changes.
Purpose: Observations made during glaucoma filtering surgery (trabeculectomy) suggest variability in the thickness of the bulbar conjunctiva and Tenon\'s layers between individuals. We propose that this could infuence the final bleb morphology and function.
We designed a pilot study to assess this using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure bulbar conjunctival and Tenon\'s layer thickness.
Materials and methods: A total of 67 eyes of 48 individuals were scanned using an optovue Mode RT100 version 2.0 OCT machine. Cross-line CAM-L scans were taken and the com bined bulbar conjunctival and Tenon\'s layer thickness was measured 3 mm above the superior limbus. Conjunctival and Tenon\'s layers appeared as a hyper-refective section as opposed to the hypo refective underlying sclera. Measurements were taken using the inbuilt review software.
Results: The age ranged from 23 to 91 years. There were 20 mal e s and 28 females. The mean conjunctival and Tenon\'s layer thick ness was 393 ± 67 microns (mean ± SD) ranging from 194 to 573 microns.
Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography conjunctival and Tenon\'s layer thickness measurements appear to vary significantly between individuals. We postulate that this could infuence the final bleb morphology and may predict the risk of bleb encapsulation and failure or thin avascular blebs. Further assessment could establish cut-offs on which patients should receive intraoperative antimetabolites and/or Tenon\'s layer excision.
Jennifer L Jung,
Cristina G Isida-Llerandi,
Jeffrey R Soohoo,
Malik Y Kahook
How to cite this article:
L Jung J, Isida-Llerandi CG, Lazcano-Gómez G, Soohoo JR, Kahook MY. Intraocular Pressure Control after Trabeculectomy, Phacotrabeculectomy and Phacoemulsification in a Hispanic Population. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014; 8 (2):67-74.
Purpose: To compare the efficacy of different surgical strategies for intraocular pressure (IOP) control in Hispanic glaucoma patients with and without visually significant cataracts.
Design: Comparative retrospective consecutive case series.
Methods: The charts of 153 consecutive patients with primary open angle glaucoma who underwent either trabeculectomy alone (n = 51), phacotrabeculectomy (n = 51), or phacoemulsification alone (n = 51) were reviewed to compare IOP control, the number of glaucoma medications required postoperatively, and the inci dence of surgical complications.
Results: Preoperative IOP was 17.5 ± 5.2 mm Hg in the trabe-culectomy group, 15.4 ± 4.5 mm Hg in the phacotrabeculectomy group and 13.9 ± 2.9 mm Hg in the phacoemulsification group (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Mean IOP reduction from baseline was 4.2 ± 6.9 (24.6%) for the trabeculectomy group, 2.9 ± 5.0 (20.8%) for the phacotrabeculectomy group, and 0.9 ± 3.4 (6.5%) for the phacoemulsification group (p = 0.009). The number of IOP-lowering medications required postoperatively decreased significantly in all three groups (p = 0.001). The rate of early and late postoperative complications was similar between the trabeculectomy and phacotrabeculectomy groups and less for the phacoemulsification group.
Conclusion: Trabeculectomy and phacotrabeculectomy are both viable surgical options for managing open angle glau coma. Both resulted in similar rates of success, IOP reduction, decrease in use of IOP-lowering medications and post operative complication rates. Phacoemulsification alone had a lower success rate and greater need for postoperative IOP-lowering medications compared to trabeculectomy alone or phacotrabeculectomy. Phacoemulsification alone may be a reasonable option for patients with visually significant cataract and lower baseline IOP.
How to cite this article:
Agarwal P, Saini V, Gupta S, Sharma A. Evaluation of Central Macular Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014; 8 (2):75-81.
Purpose: To evaluate the normative data of macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) among normal subjects using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Materials and methods: Normal subjects presenting to a tertiary medical hospital were included in the study. All patient underwent clinical examination followed by study of macular thickness and RN FL thick ness by spectral domain Topc on OCT. The data was collected and analyzed for variations in gender and age. The data was also compared with available literature.
Results: Total numbers of patients enrolled in the study were 154 (308 eyes). Numbers of males were 79 (158 eyes) and numbers of females were 75 (150 eyes). The mean age among males was 42.67 ± 12.15 years and mean age among females was 42.88 ± 11.73 years.
Overall the mean mac ular thickness (central 1 mm zone) with SD - OCT was 241.75 ± 17.3 microns. The mean macular volume was 7.6 cu. mm ± 0.33. On analysis of the RNFL thickness, we observed that the RNFL was thickest in the inferior quadrant (138.58) followed by superior (122.30) nasal (116.32) and temporal quadrant (73.04).
Gender-wise comparison of the data revealed no statistically significant difference for age, macular thickness parameters, volume and RFNL values except outer temporal thickness among males and females. No age-related difference was noted in the above parameters. On comparison with available norma tive data from India and elsewhere, we found significant variations with different machines.
Conclusion: The study is the first to provide normative data using SD-OCT from central India. The data from spectral domain OCT correlated well with the values obtained from similar studies with SD - OCT. Values obtained from time domain OCT machines are different and are not comparable.
Coherence Tomography in a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014;8(2):75-81.
Vitor Gomes Prado,
Luis Gustavo Biteli,
Aline KS Sousa,
Pilar AM Moreno,
Flavio Siqueira Lopes,
Tiago Santos Prata
How to cite this article:
Gomes Prado V, Dorairaj S, Gustavo Biteli L, KS Sousa A, Moreno PA, Siqueira Lopes F, Santos Prata T. Role of Laser Iridoplasty in the Management of Angle Closure Mechanisms other than Pupillary Block. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014; 8 (2):82-84.
Purpose: To investigate the treatment outcomes of argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI) in angle closure mechanisms other than pupillary block.
Methods: We conducted a comprehensive chart review to evaluate consecutive patients who underwent ALPI due to unsuccessful laser iridotomy (whenever the angles remained occludable) between July 2009 and April-2012. An occludable angle was defined as the posterior trabecular meshwork not visible for ≤180° without indentation on dark room gonioscopy. Eyes with previous incisional surgery or more than 90° of peripheral anterior synechiae were excluded. Main data collected were age, presence of glaucoma, pre- and postlaser intraocular pressure (IOP), angle-status, and underlying angle closure mechanism. Main outcomes were post ALPI angle widening on gonioscopy and magnitude of IOP reduction.
Results: A total of 41 eyes (27 patients) with persistent occlu-dable angles were initially included in the analysis, comprising approximately 14% of the 196 patients (321 eyes) that had under gone laser iridotomy during the predefined period. Among these cases, most common angle closure mechanisms were plateauiris (56%) and lens-induced component (34%). Patients with plateau iris were mostly women and younger than those with lens-induced component (p ≤ 0.03). A total of 35 eyes (23 patients) underwent ALPI (63% had glaucoma). Mean IOP was significantly reduced from 18. 2 ± 4.7 to 14.6 ± 3.8 (p < 0.01), with no significant difference between patients with plateau iris and lens-induced components (p = 0.22). Over 91% of these eyes showed nonoccludable angles following ALPI (follow-up of 11.8 ± 3.3 months).
Conclusion: In this series of middle-aged patients with occlu-dable angles, despite a patent iridotomy, ALPI was a useful procedure independent of the underlying mechanism, leading to angle widening and moderate IOP reduction in most cases.