Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice

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2021 | May-August | Volume 15 | Issue 2

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Karthikeyan Mahalingam

Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery—to Remove or Preserve the Trabecular Meshwork: That is the Question?

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:47 - 51]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1299  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 



Nestor Ventura-Abreu, Joana Mendes-Pereira, Marta Pazos, Ma Jesús Muniesa-Royo, Andrea Gonzalez-Ventosa, Barbara Romero-Nuñez, Elena Milla

Surgical Approach and Outcomes of Uveitic Glaucoma in a Tertiary Hospital

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:52 - 57]

Keywords: Glaucoma filtering surgery, Implant drainage devices, Uveitic glaucoma

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1306  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: This study aimed to evaluate the performance of and indication for different surgical techniques in the management of uveitic glaucoma (UG). Materials and methods: A retrospective audit of records of all patients with UG who underwent ≥1 glaucoma surgery, between January 2007 and December 2016. The main outcomes were intraocular pressure (IOP) and the need for antihypertensive medication at each follow-up visit. The total number of surgical interventions needed to control IOP was recorded. Postoperative interventions and complications were analyzed. Results: Forty eyes from 34 patients were assessed. Overall, baseline IOP was 30.7 ± 8.2 mm Hg, and postoperative mean IOP at the last visit was 16.4 ± 2.0 mm Hg, with a mean follow-up of 28 months. Antihypertensive medications were reduced from 2.8 ± 0.8 to 0.8 ± 1.2. During the follow-up, 61.8% of the eyes required only one glaucoma surgery. There was no correlation between the location of uveitis and the total number of glaucoma surgeries required. The greatest IOP reductions were in cases treated with non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (21%), Ahmed valve (23%), and cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) (51%); in cases where an Ahmed implant was the first surgical option, a 43% reduction was achieved. Conclusion: Filtering procedures, glaucoma drainage devices, and CPC are all good options for IOP control in UG, but all are prone to failure over time. With respect to IOP reduction, the safety profile, and postoperative care, Ahmed implants and CPC might be the best first surgical option. Clinical significance: The article highlights the versatility of the surgical techniques required to treat UG, which is one of the most difficult types of glaucoma to manage.



Henry Fakhoury, Youssef Abdelmassih, Sylvain el-Khoury, Mazen Amro, Karen Zaarour, Carole Cherfan, Karim Tomey, Ziad Khoueir

Effect of Topical Dexmedetomidine (0.0055%) on Intraocular Pressure in Healthy Eyes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:58 - 63]

Keywords: Dexmedetomidine drops, Glaucoma, Intraocular pressure, Medication

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1310  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: Evaluate the short-term safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine (0.0055%) drops on intraocular pressure (IOP) in healthy eyes. Materials and methods: In this randomized controlled trial, patients with normal eye exams were randomly assigned to receive, in a randomly selected eye, one drop of either balanced salt solution (BSS) or dexmedetomidine (0.0055%). Goldmann applanation tonometry was performed at baseline and then 30 minutes, 4 hours, and 24 hours after drop instillation. Results: Forty-nine eyes of 49 normal volunteers were enrolled in the study, with 21 eyes (group I) receiving BSS and 28 (group II) dexmedetomidine. Both groups were comparable at baseline as far as age and IOP (p = 0.55 for both parameters). Intraocular pressure significantly decreased from baseline in group II at 30 minutes and 4 hours (p = 0.001 and 0.05, respectively). Maximum IOP decrease was obtained at 30 minutes after dexmedetomidine instillation, with a 9% decrease from baseline (mean decrease: 1.15 mm Hg). The percentage of IOP decrease was significantly higher in group II at 30 minutes compared with group I (9 vs 1.1%; p = 0.05). No side effects were recorded. Conclusion: In this pilot study, dexmedetomidine 0.0055% drops have shown good safety and efficacy in lowering IOP in normal healthy volunteers with no history of glaucoma. This medication has a short onset of action, with a 10% reduction of IOP occurring 30 minutes post-instillation. Trial registration number: NCT03690622.



Eyüp Düzgün, Ali Olgun, Murat Karapapak, Abdurrahman Alpaslan Alkan, Melih Ustaoğlu

Outcomes of XEN Gel Stent Implantation in the Inferonasal Quadrant after Failed Trabeculectomy

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:64 - 69]

Keywords: Inferonasal quadrant, Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery, Refractory glaucoma, Trabeculectomy, XEN gel stent

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1304  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of XEN stent implantation in the inferonasal quadrant after prior failed trabeculectomy. Materials and methods: Fourteen open-angle glaucoma patients with prior failed trabeculectomy were recruited to this retrospective study. Implantation of the stent was performed as a stand-alone procedure. The mean follow-up duration was 14.2 months. Best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of medications, complications, and the requirement for additional procedures were among the outcome measures recorded. Results: Mean IOP reduced by 49.3% from 24.14 ± 2.74 mm Hg preoperatively to 12.23 ± 2.89 mm Hg at month 12 (p < 0.001). Medication usage reduced from 3.71 ± 0.47 medications preoperatively to 1.31 ± 1.55 at month 12 (p = 0.003). Adverse events included transient slight intracameral hemorrhage (5 eyes, 35.7%), second trabeculectomy required (2 eyes, 14.3%), and numerical hypotony (IOP <5 mm Hg, in 3 cases, 21.4%), all of which resolved spontaneously. Six eyes (42.8%) required postoperative bleb needling to further reduce IOP. There were no cases of vision loss, stent exposure, hypotony, lower eyelid malposition, bleb dysesthesia, or bleb-related infection. Conclusion: XEN gel stent implantation in the inferonasal quadrant can be considered a viable surgical option for patients with a history of previously failed trabeculectomy requiring further IOP lowering. Clinical significance: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series describing the outcome of inferonasal implantation of XEN gel stent following failed trabeculectomy.



Wesam S Shalaby, Amirmohsen Arbabi, Jonathan S Myers, Marlene R Moster, Reza Razeghinejad, L Jay Katz, Aakriti G Shukla

Sociodemographic and Economic Factors in Outcomes of Tube Shunts for Neovascular Glaucoma

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:70 - 77]

Keywords: Ahmed glaucoma valve, Baerveldt glaucoma implant, Glaucoma surgery, Income, Neovascular glaucoma, Race, Sociodemographic, Socioeconomic, Tube shunt

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1303  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Importance: Few studies have analyzed associations between sociodemographic factors and neovascular glaucoma (NVG) outcomes. Aim and background: To determine the potential impact of sociodemographic and economic factors on the NVG tube shunt surgery outcomes. Design: Retrospective, single-center, comparative case series. Participants: Consecutive patients who underwent tube shunt surgery for NVG and had ≥6 months of follow-up. Materials and methods: Regional average adjusted gross income (AGI) was determined by cross-referencing self-reported residential zip codes with average AGI per zip code supplied by the Internal Revenue Service. Two groups were created: (1) lower-income: individuals from neighborhoods with the lowest 10% of AGI (near the United States poverty line), (2) higher-income: the remaining 90% of individuals. Main outcome measures: Visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and glaucoma medication number at 6 months and the most recent visit. Results: The mean annual AGI in the higher-income group (130 patients) was $69,596 ± 39,700 and the lower-income group (16 patients) was $27,487 ± 1,600 (p < 0.001). Age, sex, distance to the clinic, language, and all baseline clinical variables (including VA and IOP) were comparable between groups. Lower-income was associated with non-white race (81.3 vs 52.3%; p = 0.024). At month 6, VA in the lower-income group [median: HM (20/70–NLP)] was worse than the higher-income group [median: CF (20/25–NLP)] (log MAR VA: 2.32 ± 0.8 vs 1.77 ± 1.1; p = 0.02); these trends persisted through the most recent visit (p = 0.043). Follow-up IOP and medications were similar between groups. Conclusions and relevance: Lower-income may be associated with worse VA outcomes following NVG tube shunt surgery.



TW Ch ng, CY Chua, MA Ummi Kalsom, Y Azhany, VHM Gong, AHG Rasool, AT Liza-Sharmini

Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Severity of Glaucoma: Is There a Link?

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:78 - 85]

Keywords: Blood pressure, Intraocular pressure, Ocular perfusion pressure, Severity of glaucoma

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1305  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To establish the association between 12-month inter-visits ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) and severity of glaucoma. Materials and methods: A total of 164 eyes (60 primary open-angle glaucoma, 52 normal-tension glaucoma, and 52 primary angle-closure glaucoma) of 164 patients were analyzed in this prospective cohort study. Patients who demonstrated good compliance to treatment were recruited. The severity of glaucoma was stratified according to the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) score based on reliable and reproducible visual field analysis at baseline. OPP was obtained at baseline and a 3-monthly follow-up visit over a 12-month duration. The pattern and fluctuation of mean OPP were studied. Repetitive measure ANOVA and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results: The inter-visits mean OPP (p = 0.010), systolic OPP (p = 0.020), diastolic OPP (p = 0.010), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.040), and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.006) showed significant difference with severity of glaucoma. There was no significant difference between mean inter-visits intraocular pressure (IOP) and severity of glaucoma (p = 0.410). The end-stage glaucoma group had the lowest mean OPP and widest inter-visit mean OPP fluctuation. Early and mild glaucoma patients demonstrated higher mean OPP compared with moderate, severe, and end-stage glaucoma. Conclusion: There is a significant association between OPP and the severity of glaucoma. Balancing blood pressure and IOP is important in optimizing adequate perfusion and prevent further damage to the optic nerve head.



Deniz Kumova, Zeynep Aktas, Azmi Eyiol, Murat Hasanreisoglu, Mustafa Cemri

Relationship between Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Aortic Distensibility in Peripheral Arterial Disease Patients

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:86 - 90]

Keywords: Aortic distensibility, Aortic stiffness, Peripheral arterial disease, Retinal nerve fiber layer

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1300  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To evaluate the relationship between aortic distensibility (AD) and aortic stiffness B index (ASBI) with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with HD-OCT in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients. Materials and methods: Twenty-six PAD patients and 22 age-matched healthy control were enrolled. Subjects with PAD were classified into two groups. Patients with diabetes (DM) or hypertension (HT) comprised group I (n = 18) and without DM or HT comprised group II (n = 8). Color Doppler imaging was performed on all patients and PAD was diagnosed by using the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness values between control and PAD patients and correlations between RNFL thickness and aortic stiffness parameters (AD and ASBI) were evaluated. Results: The inferior-nasal and inferior-temporal quadrant were the thickest in healthy subjects and the PAD group. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness significantly decreased in superior-nasal, temporal, inferior-nasal quadrants in group I than healthy subjects (p < 0.001, p = 0.005, p < 0.001). Temporal and inferior-nasal quadrant thicknesses were statistically significantly thinner in group II than controls (p = 0.02, p < 0.001). The nasal RNFL quadrant was significantly thinner in group I than group II (p = 0.014). The correlation between RNFL thickness and aortic elasticity parameters in each group was not found to be significant. Conclusion and clinical significance: Isolated PAD without DM or HT may lead to localized RNFL loss in temporal and inferior-nasal quadrants. Aortic elasticity parameters did not seem to be correlated with RNFL thickness in PAD.



Ohoud Owaidhah, Huda Al-Ghadeer

Bilateral Cataract Development and Pupillary Block Glaucoma Following Implantable Collamer Lens

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:91 - 95]

Keywords: Acute angle closure glaucoma, Cataract, Glaucoma, Implantable collamer lens, Intraocular pressure, Pupillary block

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1309  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: We report the first case of bilateral cataract formation and pupillary block glaucoma and high intraocular pressure (IOP) following implantable Collamer lens (ICL) implantation that resulted in advanced visual field loss. Background: The patient who underwent bilateral ICL implantation can develop bilaterally elevated IOP and an anterior subcapsular cataract with altitudinal visual field defect. Case description: A 38-year-old man with high myopia presented for routine follow-up status post bilateral phakic ICL placement. The visual acuity was reduced due to an anterior subcapsular cataract and elevated IOP in both eyes with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. The patient was treated with topical glaucoma medications. The left eye underwent same-day phakic ICL explanation and cataract surgery to prevent further visual field loss. Conclusion: Cataract and glaucoma are serious complications after phakic ICL implantation; therefore, regular postoperative monitoring may prevent advanced visual impairment. Clinical significance: The use of a phakic intraocular lens for the correction of myopia may result in complications. As a measure is to reduce such complications, refractive surgeons preferred using phakic posterior chamber intraocular Collamer lens for the correction of myopia.



Patrícia José, Luís Abegão Pinto, Filipa Jorge Teixeira

XEN-augmented Baerveldt Failure: Three Different Revision Approaches for Pediatric Patients

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:96 - 98]

Keywords: Baerveldt tube, Case review, Childhood glaucoma, XEN implant

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1307  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: Report three different solutions in case of XEN-augmented Baerveldt fails. Background: Drainage devices have been used for refractory pediatric glaucoma. To avoid early hypotony and corneal damage, Mermoud et al. introduced the augmentation of a XEN implant with a Baerveldt tube. In some cases, this technique fails to lead to a high intraocular pressure (IOP) and surgical revision. Case description: Three cases of children with this combined implant needed surgical revision due to high IOP. Three different approaches were performed: XEN replacement in one case, stretching the Baerveldt's tube into the anterior chamber (AC) in the second case, and explant of the device followed by an implant of a new Baerveldt-250 in the same quadrant in the third case. Successful control of IOP (>18 mm Hg) was achieved in all patients under no topical treatment. Conclusion: Despite the attractiveness of the XEN-augmented Baerveldt implant in refractory pediatric glaucoma as an alternative to conventional surgery, we have to learn how to deal with failures. Three different approaches are presented with good short-term results. The long-term efficacy is yet to be assessed. Clinical significance: Describe three possible options when faced with a need for surgical revision in XEN-augmented Baerveldt implant.



AB Tefon Arıbaş, Zeynep Aktas, Şengül Özdek

Neonatal Onset Glaucoma in a Case with Gorlin–Goltz Syndrome: An Unusual Association

[Year:2021] [Month:May-August] [Volume:15] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:99 - 101]

Keywords: Coloboma, Glaucoma, Gorlin–Goltz Syndrome

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1308  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim and objective: To report a unique presentation of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome (GGS) with congenital glaucoma. Materials and methods: We report a case of a 3-month-old female patient with bilateral uncontrolled intraocular pressures (IOP), who was already diagnosed with GGS. Examination under anesthesia demonstrated microcornea, iris coloboma, lens subluxation in both eyes, and edematous cornea in the left eye. Intraocular pressure was 17 mm Hg in OD and 35 mm Hg in OS with Icare (Icare® PRO) tonometer on repetitive measurements. On dilated fundus examination, a large chorioretinal coloboma was seen on both eyes. Results: On physical examination, cutaneous, dental, and skeletal anomalies associated with the GGS were found. As previously reported ocular abnormalities associated with the GGS; coloboma and microphthalmia were noted. In addition, congenital glaucoma which is not one of the known associations of GGS was also detected. For treatment, 270° transscleral diode cyclophotoablation was performed for the left eye and medical treatment was reorganized for both eyes. Conclusion: Neonatal-onset glaucoma might be one of the important ocular manifestations of GGS.


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