Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice

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2016 | January-April | Volume 10 | Issue 1

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Fabio N Kanadani, TCA Moreira, LF Campos, MP Vianello, J Corradi, SK Dorairaj, ALA Freitas, R Ritch

A New Provocative Test for Glaucoma

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:1 - 3]

Keywords: Glaucoma, Provocative test, Water drinking test

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10008-1194  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To compare the effects of the water-drinking test (WDT) with the 30° inverted body position test on intraocular pressure (IOP) in normal patients, suspected glaucoma patients and glaucoma patients. Materials and methods: Based on clinical evaluation of the optic disk, IOP, and standard achromatic perimetry (SAP) of 71 eyes, 18 were “normal” (normal SAP and optic disk evaluation, and IOP < 21 mm Hg), 30 were “glaucoma suspect” (GS; normal SAP, cup/disk (C/D) ratio > 0.5 or asymmetry > 0.2 and/or ocular hypertension), and 31 had “early glaucoma” (MD < -6 dB, glaucomatous optic neuropathy). Standard achromatic perimetry was performed with the Octopus 3.1.1 Dynamic 24-2 program. Patients fasted before the WDT, and four measurements were performed at basal, 15’, 30, and 45’ after drinking 1 liter of water (WDT) in 5 minutes. In the 30° inverted position, IOP measurement with Perkins applanation tonometer was taken after 5 minutes lying down. Results: There was a statistical difference in all groups between the basal IOP and peak IOP during the WDT (p < 0.001) and in the inverted position IOP (p < 0.001). Controls (p = 0.50), suspects (p = 0.41) and glaucoma patients (p = 1.0) did not exhibit a difference between WDT-IOP and inverted position IOP. Conclusion: The 30° inverted position test was as efficient as WDT in detecting peak IOP. This new provocative test is easier, faster and more comfortable for both patients and doctors.



Fabio N Kanadani, TCA Moreira, BSP Bezerra, MP Vianello, J Corradi, SK Dorairaj, TS Prata

Diurnal Curve of the Ocular Perfusion Pressure

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:4 - 6]

Keywords: Diurnal curve, Glaucoma, Ocular perfusion pressure

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10008-1195  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To describe the diurnal variation of the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in normal, suspects and glaucoma patients. Materials and methods: Seventy-nine subjects were enrolled in a prospective study. The diurnal curve of intraocular pressure (IOP) was performed and blood pressure measurements were obtained. Each participant was grouped into one of the following based upon the clinical evaluation of the optic disk, IOP and standard achromatic perimetry (SAP): 18 eyes were classified as normal (normal SAP, normal optic disk evaluation and IOP < 21 mm Hg in two different measurements), 30 eyes as glaucoma suspect (GS) (normal SAP and mean deviation (MD), C/D ration > 0.5 or asymmetry > 0.2 and/or ocular hypertension), 31 eyes as early glaucoma (MD < -6 dB, glaucomatous optic neuropathy and SAP and MDs on SAP. Standard achromatic perimetry was performed with the Octopus 3.1.1 Dynamic 24-2 program. Intraocular pressure and blood pressure measurements were taken at 6 am, 9 am, 12, 3 and 6 pm. The patients stayed in the seated position for 5 minutes prior to blood pressure measurements. Results: The mean IOP values in all groups did not follow any regular pattern. The peak IOP was found to be greater in suspect [18.70 ± 3.31 (mm Hg ± SD)] and glaucoma (18.77 ± 4.30 mm Hg) patients as compared to normal subjects (16.11 ± 2.27 mm Hg). In studying the diurnal variation of the OPP, we found lower values at 3 pm in normals (34.21 ± 2.07 mm Hg), at 9 am in suspects (54.35 ± 3.32 mm Hg) and at 12 pm in glaucoma patients (34.84 ± 1.44 mm Hg). Conclusion: Each group has a specific OPP variation during the day with the most homogeneous group being the suspect one. It is important to keep studying the IOP and OPP variation for increased comprehension of the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.



Raquel Rodriguez, Rachel Alburquerque, Tripper Sauer, Juan Francisco Batlle

The Safety and Efficacy of Two-site Phacotrabeculectomy with Mitomycin C under Retrobulbar and Topical Anesthesia

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:7 - 12]

Keywords: Anesthesia, Mitomycin C, Phacotrabeculectomy, Topical, Trabeculectomy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10008-1196  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Purpose: To evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of combined two-site phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy surgery with mitomycin C (MMC) in glaucoma-cataract patients with retrobulbar or topical anesthesia. Patients and methods: A retrospective, nonrandomized review of consecutive phacotrabeculectomy patients with a minimum follow-up time of 6 months, no previous glaucoma surgeries, and a preoperative visual acuity (VA) greater than light perception. The main outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative VA, intraocular pressure (IOP), use of glaucoma medications, and complications. A complete surgical success required an IOP from 6 to 18 mm Hg, no visually devastating complications, no return to surgery, and no use of glaucoma medications. Qualified success allowed the use of up to two glaucoma medications. Anesthesia groups were compared by student t-tests and log rank comparison of Kaplan-Meier survival rates. Results: Eighty-seven eyes (83 patients) met inclusion criteria, with a mean follow-up of 19 ± 12 months (6-57 months). The average eye gained 3.1 ± 4.9 lines of VA, lost 4.0 ± 7.1 mm Hg of IOP, and decreased 1.0 ± 1.3 glaucoma medications. Retrobulbar and topical anesthesia groups had statistically equivalent mean changes in VA (p = 0.910), IOP (p = 0.268), and use of glaucoma medications (p = 0.964). Postoperative complication rates were also statistically similar (p = 0.580). Complete success was greater in the retrobulbar group (p = 0.006), however, qualified success was equivalent in both groups (p = 0.769). Conclusion: Two-site phacotrabeculectomy with MMC in West Indian patients is as safe and effective for glaucoma-cataract patients with topical anesthesia as it is under retrobulbar anesthesia, and without short-term losses in VA and the chance of serious complications from injection.



Anthony Gigon, Tarek Shaarawy

The Suprachoroidal Route in Glaucoma Surgery

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:13 - 20]

Keywords: Glaucoma surgery, Microinvasive, Review, Suprachoroidal

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10008-1197  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Glaucoma surgeries targeting the uveoscleral drainage pathways have been drawing more attention lately. Among all the available techniques, procedures focusing on the supra-choroidal space seem particularly promising, by making use of a presumably efficient and secure outflow route and avoiding subconjunctival filtration blebs. The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy and the security of the different suprachoroidal drainage implants, namely the CyPass Micro-Stent, the iStent Supra, the SOLX Gold Shunt, the Aquashunt, and the STARflo Glaucoma Implant. Most clinical studies seem to currently point toward the direction that there are actual benefits in suprachoroidal surgeries by avoiding bleb-related complications. Nevertheless, even suprachoroidal implants may be subject to scarring and failure. More data are still needed, especially concerning long-term effects, although the approach does seem appealing.



Tom Eke

Preoperative Preparation and Anesthesia for Trabeculectomy

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:15] [Pages No:21 - 35]

Keywords: Anesthesia, Intracameral anesthesia, Local anesthesia, Peribulbar anesthesia, Retrobulbar anesthesia, Subconjunctival anesthesia, Sub-Tenon's anesthesia, Topical anesthesia, Trabeculectomy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10008-1198  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Preoperative preparation should improve the likelihood of successful trabeculectomy surgery. The team can reconsider the appropriateness of the proposed surgery, and steps can be taken to maximize the chance of a good outcome. For example, adjustments to anti-hypertensive or anti-coagulant medications may be made, and topical ocular medications adjusted. Choice of anesthesia technique is of particular relevance to the trabeculectomy patient. Some anesthesia techniques are more likely to have serious complications, and glaucoma patients may be at higher risk of some sight-threatening complications, because the optic nerve is already damaged and vulnerable. Posterior placement of local anesthesia (retrobulbar, peribulbar, posterior sub-Tenon's techniques) could potentially damage the optic nerve, and thereby cause “wipe-out” of vision. Anesthesia technique may influence the likelihood of vitreous bulge and surgical difficulty. Regarding long-term control of intraocular pressure, there is no good evidence to indicate that any particular anesthesia technique is better than another. There is little high-quality evidence on this topic. The author's preferred technique for trabeculectomy is subconjunctival-intracameral anesthesia without sedation.



Hye Jin Kwon, Nathan M Kerr, Jonathan B Ruddle, Ghee Soon Ang

Endophthalmitis associated with Glaucoma Shunt Intraluminal Stent Exposure

[Year:2016] [Month:January-April] [Volume:10] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:36 - 37]

Keywords: Case study, Endophthalmitis, Glaucoma shunt, Intraluminal stent

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10008-1199  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Endophthalmitis post glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) surgery is rare, often associated with tube or plate exposure. We report a case of endophthalmitis following glaucoma shunt intraluminal stent exposure in a patient who underwent Baerveldt glaucoma implant surgery. Endophthalmitis following manipulation of intraluminal stents is a rare complication of GDIs but potentially vision threatening condition that needs to be carefully screened for and treated immediately.


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