Aims and objectives: This study aimed at describing the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric glaucoma patients in a university hospital in Lebanon and comparing them between primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and secondary glaucoma.
Materials and methods: Sixty-four eyes of 40 pediatric glaucoma patients with a follow-up of 1 year or more were reviewed. Parameters were studied for both PCG and secondary glaucoma groups. Three major outcomes were considered: intraocular pressure (IOP) control, final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and the proportion of failed angle surgeries.
Results: Sixty-four eyes were included divided into 29 PCG and 35 secondary glaucoma eyes, followed up for a mean of 6.6 ± 4.7 years. Eyes with PCG presented earlier, with a higher initial IOP and underwent earlier surgery than their secondary glaucoma counterparts. Although 85.9% of all eyes achieved good IOP control, 44.4% of them had a BCVA ≥20/50 with PCG having a better visual prognosis. Secondary glaucoma eyes needed more medications at the end of their follow-up. In this group, it was shown that a later age at first surgery, unilateral disease, and multiple surgeries were associated with a BCVA < 20/50.
Conclusion: Patients with PCG presented earlier and with a higher IOP than secondary glaucoma; they were also operated on earlier. Both groups demonstrated good IOP control at the end of the follow-up period with PCG eyes having a superior visual outcome. Secondary glaucoma eyes required a higher number of medications at their final visit. In this population, multiple surgeries, unilateral disease, and a delayed first surgery conferred a poorer visual prognosis.
Clinical significance: Data regarding the characteristics of pediatric glaucoma, especially in the Middle East, are scarce. Our study sheds the light on the presentation of different types of pediatric glaucoma and their outcomes namely IOP control and visual acuity.
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