Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice

Register      Login

VOLUME 8 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2014 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Management of Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma

Annadurai Parivadhini, Vijaya Lingam

Keywords : Pupillary block, Neovascular glaucoma, Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome, Aqueous misdirection syndrome, Ciliary body swelling

Citation Information : Parivadhini A, Lingam V. Management of Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014; 8 (1):25-32.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10008-1157

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-04-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Secondary angle closure glaucomas are a distinct entity from primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). Unlike PACG, secondary angle closure glaucoma\'s have an identifable contributory factor/s for angle closure and obstruction of aqueous fow which is usually unrelieved by iridotomy. The treatment of each type of secondary angle closure glaucoma is varied, so identification of the primary cause aids in its effective management.


PDF Share
  1. Luntz MH, Rosenblatt M. Malignant glaucoma. Surv Ophthalmol 1987 Sep-Oct;32(2):73-93.
  2. Harbour JW, Rubsamen PE, Palmberg P. Pars plana vitrectomy in the management of phakic and pseudophakic malignant glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1996 Sep;114(9):1073-1078.
  3. Lynch MG, Brown RH, Michels RG, Pollack IP, Stark WJ. Surgical vitrectomy for pseudophakic malignant glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1986 Aug;102(2):149-153.
  4. DiSclafani M, Liebmann JM, Ritch R. Malignant Glaucoma following argon laser release of scleral flap sutures after trabeculectomy. Am J Ophthalmol 1989 Nov;108(5):597-598.
  5. Greenfield DS, Tello C, Budenz DL, Liebmann JM, Ritch R. Aqueous misdirection after glaucoma drainage device implantation. Ophthalmology 1999 May;106(5):1035-1040.
  6. Cashwell LF, Martin TJ. Malignant glaucoma after laser iridotomy. Ophthalmology 1992 May;99(5):651-659.
  7. Epstein, DL. The malignant glaucoma syndromes. In: Epstein DL, Allingham RR, Schuman JS, editors. Chandler and Grant's Glaucoma. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1997. p. 285-303.
  8. Lieberman, MF.; Lee, DA. Diagnosis and management of malignant glaucoma. In Higginbotham EJ, Lee DA, editors. Clinical guide to glaucoma management, Woburn, MA, Butterworth Heinemann/Elsevier, 2004.
  9. Trope GE, Pavlin CJ, Bau A, Baumal CR, Foster FS. Malignant glaucoma: Clinical and ultrasound biomicroscopic features. Ophthalmology 1994 Jun;101(6):1030-1335.
  10. Chandler PA, Grant WM. Mydriatic-cycloplegic treatment in malignant glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1962 Sep;68:353-359.
  11. Sharma A, Sii F, Shah P, Kirkby GR. Vitrectomy-phacoemulsification- vitrectomy for the management of aqueous misdirection syndromes in phakic eyes. Ophthalmology 2006 Nov;113(11):1968-1973.
  12. Stumpf TH, Austin M, Bloom PA, McNaught A, Morgan JE. Transscleral cyclodiode laser photocoagulation in the treatment of aqueous misdirection syndrome. Ophthalmology 2008 Nov;115(11):2058-2061.
  13. Sivak-Callcott JA, O'Day DM, Gass JD, Tsai JC. Evidencebased recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of neovascular glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2001 Oct;108(10): 1767-1776.
  14. Tripathi RC, Li J, Tripathi BJ, Chalam KV, Adamis AP. Increased level of vascular endothelial growth factor in aqueous humour of patients with neovascular glaucoma. Ophthalmology 1998 Feb;105(2):232-237.
  15. Allingham, RR.; Karim, F.; Sharon DF, et al. Shields Textbook of Glaucoma. New Delhi, India: Wolters Kluwer Pvt Ltd; 2011. Chapter 19, Glaucoma associated with disorder of the retina, vitreous and choroid,
  16. Browning DJ. Risk of missing angle neovascularization by omitting angle screening gonioscopy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Ophthalmol 1991 Aug 15;112(2):212.
  17. Blinder KJ, Friedman SM, Mames RN. Diabetic iris neovascularization. Am J Ophthalmol 1995 Sep;120(3):393-395.
  18. Browning DJ, Scott AQ, Peterson CB, Warnock J, Zhang Z. The risk of missing angle neovascularization by omitting angle screening gonioscopy in acute central retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 1998 May;105(5):776-784.
  19. Little HL, Rosenthal AR, Dellaporta A, Jacobson DR. The effect of pan–retinal photo-coagulation on rubeosis iridis. Am J Ophthalmol 1976 Jun;81(6):804-809.
  20. Flanagan DW, Blach RK. Place of panretinal photocoagulation and trabeculectomy in the management of neovascular glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 1983 Aug;67(8):526-528.
  21. Goodart R, Blankenship G. Panretinal photocoagulation influence on vitrectomy results for complications of diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology 1980 Mar;87(3):183-188.
  22. Takihara Y, Inatani M, Fukushima M, Iwao K, Iwao M, Tanihara H. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C for neovascular glaucoma: prognostic factors for surgical failure. Am J Ophthalmol 2009 May;147(5):912-918.
  23. Herschler J, Agness D. A modified filtering operation for neovascular glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1979 Dec;97(12): 2339-2341.
  24. Duch S, Buchacra O, Milla E, Andreu D, Tellez J. Intracameral bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular glaucoma: a pilot study in 6 patients. J Glaucoma 2009 Feb;18(2):140-143.
  25. Fakhraie G, Katz JL, Prasad A, Eslami Y, Sabour S, Zarei R, Moghimi S. Surgical outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab and guarded filtration surgery in neovascular glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2010 Mar;19(3):212-218.
  26. Takihara Y, Inatani M, Kawaji T, Fukushima M, Iwao K, Iwao M, Tanihara H. Combined intravitreal bevacizumab and trabeculectomy with mitomycin C versus trabeculectomy with mitomycin C alone for neovascular glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2011 Mar;20(3):196-201.
  27. Hong CH, Arosemena A, Zurakowski D, Ayyala RS. Glaucoma drainage devices: a systematic literature review and current controversies. Surv Ophthalmol 2005 Jan-Feb;50(1):48-60.
  28. Assaad MH, Baerveldt G, Rockwood EJ. Glaucoma drainage devices: pros and cons. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1999 Apr; 10(2):147-153.
  29. Mermoud A, Salmon JF, Alexander P, Straker C, Murray AD. Molteno tube implantation for neovascular glaucoma. Long-term results and factors influencing the outcome. Ophthalmology 1993 Jun; 100(6):897-902.
  30. Park UC, Park HK, Kim MD, Yu HG. Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for neovasuclar glaucoma after vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. J Glaucoma 2011 Sep;20(7):433-438.
  31. Sidoti PA. Dunphy TR. Baerveldt G, LaBree L, Minckler DS, Lee PP, Heuer DK. Experience with the Baerveldt glaucoma implant in treating neovascular glaucoma. Ophthalmology 1995 Jul;102(7):1107-1118.
  32. Scott IU, Alexandrakis G, Flynn HW Jr, Smiddy WE, Murray TG, Schiffman J, Gedde SJ, Budenz DL, Fantes F, Parrish RK. Combined pars plana vitrectomy and glaucoma drainage implant placement for refractory glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2000 Mar;129(3):334-341.
  33. Bloom PA, Tsai JC, Sharma K, Miller MH, Rice NS, Hitchings RA, Khaw PT. “Cyclodiode”. Trans-scleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in the treatment of advanced refractory glaucoma. Ophthalmology 1997 Sep;104(9):1508-1520.
  34. Ramli N, Htoon HM, Ho CL, Aung T, Perera S. Risk factors for hypotony after transscleral diode cyclophotocoagulation. J Glaucoma 2012 Mar;21(3):169-173.
  35. Eagle RC Jr, Font RL, Yanoff M, Fine BS. Proliferative endotheliopathy with iris abnormalities. The iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 1979 Nov;97(11):2104- 2111.
  36. Campbell DG, Shields MB, Smith TR. The corneal endothelium and the spectrum of essential iris atrophy. Am J Ophthalmol 1978 Sep;86(3):317-324.
  37. Laganowski HC, Kerr Muir MG, Hitchings RA. Glaucoma and the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 1992 Mar;110(3):346-350.
  38. Patel A, Kenyon KR, Hirst LW, Quigley HA, Stark WJ, Meyer RF, Green WR. Clinicopathologic features of Chandler's syndrome. Surv Ophthalmol 1983 Mar-Apr;27(5):327-344.
  39. Kidd M, Hetherington J, Magee S. Surgical results in Iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 1988 Feb;106(2): 199-201.
  40. Wright MM, Grajewski AL, Cristol SM, Parrish RK. 5-Fluorouracil after trabeculectomy and the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Ophthalmology 1991 Mar;98(3):314-316.
  41. Lanzl IM, Wilson RP, Dudley D, Augsburger JJ, Aslanides IM, Spaeth GL. Outcome of trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C in the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Ophthalmology 2000 Feb;107(2):295-297.
  42. Kim DK, Aslanides IM, Schimdt CM Jr, Spaeth GL, Wilson RP, Augsburger JJ. Long-term outcome of aqueous shunt surgery in 10 patients with iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Ophthalmology 1999 May;106(5):1030-1034.
  43. Moorthy RS, Mermoud A, Baerveldt G, Minckler DS, Lee PP, Rao NA. Glaucoma associated with uveitis. Surv Ophthalmol 1997 Mar-Apr;41(5):361-394.
  44. Skolnick CA, Fiscella RG, Tessler HH, Goldstein DA. Tissue plasminogen activator to treat impending pupillary block glaucoma in patients with acute fibrinous HLA-B27 positive iridocyclitis. Am J Opththalmol 2000 Mar;129(3):363-366.
  45. Schwartz LW, Moster MR, Spaeth GL, Wilson RP, Poryzees E. Neodymium-YAG laser iridectomies in glaucoma associated with closed or occludable angles. Am J Ophthalmol 1986 Jul;102(1):41-44.
  46. Kanski, JJ.; McAllister, JA. Glaucoma associated with uveitis diagnosis and therapy. In: Cairns JE, editor. Glaucoma. Vol. 11. London: Grune and Stratton; 1986. p. 851-859.
  47. Skuta GL, Parrish RK 2nd. Wound healing in glaucoma filtering surgery. Surv Ophthalmol 1987 Nov-Dec;32(3):149-170.
  48. Prata JA Jr, Neves RA, Minckler DS, Mermoud A, Heuer DK. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in glaucoma associated with uveitis. Ophthalmic Surg 1994 Sep-Oct;25(9):616-620.
  49. Hill RA, Nguyen QH, Baerveldt G, Forster DJ, Minckler DS, Rao N, Lee M, Heuer DK. Trabeculectomy and Molteno implantation for glaucomas associated with uveitis. Ophthalmology 1993 Jun;100(6):903-908.
  50. Gil-Carrasco F, Salinas-VanOrman E, Recillas-Gispert C, Paczka JA, Gilbert ME, Arellanes-García L. Ahmed valve implant for uncontrolled uveitic glaucoma. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 1998 Mar; 6(1):27-37.
  51. Da Mata A, Burk SE, Netland PA, Baltatzis S, Christen W, Foster CS. Management of uveitic glaucoma with Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. Ophthalmology 1999 Nov;106(11): 2168- 2172.
  52. Ceballos EM, Parrish RK 2nd, Schiffman JC. Outcome of Baerveldt glaucoma drainage implants for the treatment of uveitic glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2002 Dec;109(12): 2256-2260.
  53. Kanski JJ, McAllister JA. Trabeculodialysis for inflammatory glaucoma in children and young adults. Ophthalmology 1985 Jul;92(7):927-930.
  54. Freedman SF, Rodriguez-Rosa RE, Rojas MC, Enyedi LB. Goniotomy for glaucoma secondary to chronic childhood uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol 2002 May;133(5):617-621.
  55. Murphy CC, Burnett CA, Spry PG, Broadway DC, Diamond JP. A two centre study of the dose-response relation for transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation in refractory glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2003 Oct;87(10):1252-1257.
  56. Azuara-Blanco A, Spaeth GL, Araujo SV, Augsburger JJ, Terebuh AK. Plateau iris syndrome associated with multiple ciliary body cysts. Report of three cases. Arch Ophthalmol 1996 Jun;114(6):666-668.
  57. Ritch R, Liebmann JM. Role of ultrasound biomicroscopy in the differentiation of block glaucomas. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1998 Apr;9(2):39-45.
  58. Bron AJ, Wilson CB, Hill AR. Laser treatment of primary ring-shaped epithelial iris cyst. Br J Ophthalmol 1984 Dec;68(12):859-865.
  59. Crowston JG, Medeiros FA, Mosaed S, Weinreb RN. Argon laser iridoplasty in the treatment of plateau-like iris configuration as result of numerous ciliary body cysts. Am J Ophthalmol 2005 Feb;139(2):381-383.
  60. Lois N, Shields CL, Shields JA, Mercado G. Primary cysts of the iris pigment epithelium. Clinical features and natural course in 234 patients. Ophthalmology 1998 Oct;105(10):1879-1885.
  61. Vela A, Rieser JC, Campbell DG. The heredity and treatment of angle-closure glaucoma secondary to iris and ciliary body cysts. Ophthalmology 1984 Apr;91(4):332-337.
  62. Kuchenbecker J, Motschmann M, Schmitz K, Behrens-Baumann W. Laser iridocystotomy for bilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma secondary to iris cysts. Am J Ophthalmol 2000 Mar;129(3):391-393.
  63. Kreiger AE, Hodgkinson BJ, Frederick AR Jr, Smith TR. The results of retinal detachment surgery. Analysis of 268 operations with a broad scleral buckle. Arch Ophthalmol 1971 Oct;86(4):385-394.
  64. Burton TC, Folk JC. Laser iris retraction for angle-closure glaucoma after retinal detachment surgery. Ophthalmology 1988 Jun;95(6):742-748.
  65. Scott IU, Gedde SJ, Budenz DL, Greenfield DS, Flynn HW Jr, Feuer WJ, Mello MO Jr, Krishna R, Godfrey DG. Baerveldt drainage implants in eyes with a preexisting scleral buckle. Arch Ophthalmol 2000 Nov;118(11):1509-1513.
  66. Chang, S. Intraocular gases. In: Ryan SJ, editor. Retina. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1994. p. 2115-2129.
  67. Lincoff A, Haft D, Liggett P, Reifer C. Intravitreal expansion of perfluorocarbon bubbles. Arch Ophthalmol 1980 Sep; 98(9):1646.
  68. Lean JS, Boone DC, Azen SP, et al. Vitrectomy with silicone oil or sulfur hexafluoride gas in eyes with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Silicone Study Report 1. Arch Ophthalmol 1992 Jun;110(6): 770-779.
  69. McCuen B, Azen SP, Boone DC, et al. Vitrectomy with silicone oil or perfluoropropane gas in eyes with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results of a randomized clinical trial. Silicone Study Report 2. Arch Ophthalmol 1992 Jun;110(6): 780-792.
  70. Mills MD, Devenyi RG, Lam WC, Berger AR, Beijer CD, Lam SR. An assessment of intraocular pressure rise in patients with gas-filled eyes during simulated air flight. Ophthalmology 2001 Jan; 108(1):40-44.
  71. Honavar SG, Goyal M, Majji AB, Sen PK, Naduvilath T, Dandona L. Glaucoma after pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection for complicated retinal detachments. Ophthalmology 1999 Jan;106(1):169-177.
  72. Budenz DL, Taba KE, Feuer WJ, Eliezer R, Cousins S, Henderer J, Flynn HW Jr. Surgical management of secondary glaucoma after pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection for complex retinal detachment. Ophthalmology 2001 Sep;108(9): 1628-1632.
  73. Nguyen QH, Lloyd MA, Heuer DK, Baerveldt G, Minckler DS, Lean JS, Liggett PE. Incidence and management of glaucoma after intravitreal silicone oil injection for complicated retinal detachments. Ophthalmology 1992 Oct;99(10):1520-1526.
  74. Gedde SJ. Management of glaucoma after retinal detachment surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2002 Apr;13(2):103-109.
  75. Lima FE, Magacho L, Carvalho DM, Susanna R Jr, Avila MP. A prospective, comparative study between endoscopic cytophotocoagulation and the Ahmed drainage implant in refractory glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2004 Jun;13(3):233-237.
  76. Uram M. Combined phacoemulsification, endoscopic ciliary process photocoagulation and intraocular lens implantation in glaucoma management. Ophthalmic Surg 1995 Jul- Aug;26(4):346-352.
  77. Fraunfelder FW, Fraunfelder FT, Keates EU. Topiramateassociated acute, bilateral, secondary ange-closure glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2004 Jan;111(1):109-111.
  78. Narayanaswamy AK, Antrolikar M, Vijaya L. Acetazolamideinduced glaucoma. Asian J Ophthalmol 2007;9(5):213-215.
  79. Lachkar Y, Bouassida W. Drug-induced acute angle closure glaucoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2007 Mar;18(2):129-133.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.