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VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2013 ) > List of Articles


Genetic, Biochemical and Clinical Insights into Primary Congenital Glaucoma

Muneeb Faiq, Reetika Sharma, Kuldeep Mohanty, Daman Saluja

Keywords : Glaucoma, Primary congenital glaucoma, Genetics, CYP1B1, Myocilin

Citation Information : Faiq M, Sharma R, Mohanty K, Saluja D. Genetic, Biochemical and Clinical Insights into Primary Congenital Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2013; 7 (2):66-84.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10008-1140

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-12-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).


Glaucoma is an irreversible form of optic neuropathy in which the optic nerve suffers damage in a characteristic manner with optic nerve cupping and retinal ganglion cell death. Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is an idiopathic irreversible childhood blinding disorder which manifests at birth or within the first year of life. PCG presents with a classical triad of symptoms (viz epiphora, photophobia and blepharospasm) though there are many additional symptoms, including large eye ball and hazy cornea. The only anatomical anomaly found in PCG is trabecular meshwork (TM) dysgenesis. PCG is an inheritable disease with established genetic etiology. It transmits through autosomal recessive mode. A number of cases are sporadic also. Mutations in many genes have been found to be causative in PCG and many are yet to be found. Mutations in cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) gene have been found to be the predominant cause of PCG. Other genes that have been implicated in PCG etiology are myocilin, Forkhead-related transcription factor C1 (FOXC1) and latent transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 2 (LTBP2). Mutations in these genes have been reported from many parts of the world. In addition to this, mitochondrial genome mutations are also thought to be involved in its pathogenesis. There appears to be some mechanism involving more than one genetic factor. In this review, we will discuss the various clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects of PCG. We emphasize that etiology of PCG does not lie in a single gene or genetic factor. Research needs to be oriented into a direction where gene-gene interactions, ocular embryology, ophthalmic metabolism and systemic oxidative status need to be studied in order to understand this disorder. We also accentuate the need for ophthalmic genetic facilities in all ophthalmology setups.

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