Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice

Register      Login

VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2013 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty: A Clinical Review

Skaat Alon

Keywords : Selective laser trabeculoplasty, Glaucoma, Trabecular meshwork

Citation Information : Alon S. Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty: A Clinical Review. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2013; 7 (2):58-65.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10008-1139

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-08-2013

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is a safe and effective treatment modality for lowering the intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. It achieves its results by selective absorption of energy in the trabecular pigmented cells, sparing adjacent cells and tissues from thermal damage, with minimal morphological tissue alteration following treatment. On the basis of the peer-reviewed medical literature, SLT is efficacious in lowering IOP, as initial treatment or when medical therapy is insufficient in all types of open-angle glaucoma in all races. SLT achieves intraocular pressure reduction similar to that of argon laser trabeculoplasty but without the tissue destruction and side effects. Observed side effects following SLT were almost uniformly transient and minor. We review highlights of recently published studies on the mechanisms and clinical outcome of SLT in order to address frequently raised issues pertinent to SLT in the clinical practice. Key messages: Selective laser trabeculoplasty is a safe and effective treatment modality for lowering the intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma.


PDF Share
  1. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 7. The relationship between control of intraocular pressure and visual field deterioration. The AGIS Investigators. Am J Ophthalmol 2000 Oct;130(4):429-440.
  2. Wise JB, Witter SL. Argon laser therapy for open-angle glaucoma. A pilot study. Arch Ophthalmol 1979 Feb;97(2):319- 322.
  3. Spurny RC, Lederer CM Jr. Krypton laser trabeculoplasty. A clinical report. Arch Ophthalmol 1984 Nov;102(11):1626- 1628.
  4. Chung PY, Schuman JS, Netland PA, Lloyd-Muhammad RA, Jacobs DS. Five-year results of a randomized, prospective, clinical trial of diode vs argon laser trabeculoplasty for openangle glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1998 Aug;126(2):185-190.
  5. Guzey M, Arslan O, Tamcelik N, Satici A. Effects of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser trabeculoplasty on diurnal intraocular pressure variations in primary open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmologica 1999;213(4):214-218.
  6. Tsai JC. A comprehensive perspective on patient adherence to topical glaucoma therapy. Ophthalmology 2009 Nov;116(11 Suppl): 30S-36S.
  7. Schwartz GF, Quigley HA. Adherence and persistence with glaucoma therapy. Surv Ophthalmol 2008 Nov;53 Suppl 1: 57S-68S.
  8. Robin A, Grover DS. Compliance and adherence in glaucoma management. Indian J Ophthalmol 2011 Jan;59 Suppl:93S-96S.
  9. Gupta R, Patil B, Shah BM, Bali SJ, Mishra SK, Dada T. Evaluating eye drop instillation technique in glaucoma patients. J Glaucoma 2012 Mar;21(3):189-192.
  10. Sleath B, Blalock S, Covert D, Stone JL, Skinner AC, Muir K, Robin AL. The relationship between glaucoma medication adherence, eye drop technique and visual field defect severity. Ophthalmology 2011 Dec;118(12):2398-2402.
  11. Robin AL, Covert D. Does adjunctive glaucoma therapy affect adherence to the initial primary therapy? Ophthalmology 2005 May;112(5):863-868.
  12. Ergin A, Ornek K, Güllü R, Bulcun E, Ekici M, Ekici A. Effects of timolol and latanoprost on respiratory and cardiovascular status in elderly patients with glaucoma. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2009 Oct;25(5):463-466.
  13. Han JA, Frishman WH, Wu Sun S, Palmiero PM, Petrillo R. Cardiovascular and respiratory considerations with pharmacotherapy of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Cardiol Rev 2008 Mar-Apr;16(2):95-108.
  14. Servat JJ, Bernardino CR. Effects of common topical antiglaucoma medications on the ocular surface, eyelids and periorbital tissue. Drugs Aging 2011 Apr;28(4):267-282.
  15. Jampel HD, Solus JF, Tracey PA, Gilbert DL, Loyd TL, Jefferys JL, Quigley HA. Outcomes and bleb-related complications of trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology 2012 Apr;119(4):712-722.
  16. Solus JF, Jampel HD, Tracey PA, Gilbert DL, Loyd TL, Jefferys JL, Quigley HA. Comparison of limbus-based and fornix-based trabeculectomy: success, bleb-related complications and bleb morphology. Ophthalmology 2012 Apr;119(4):703-711.
  17. Stein JD, Kim DD, Peck WW, Giannetti SM, Hutton DW. Costeffectiveness of medications compared with laser trabeculoplasty in patients with newly diagnosed open-angle glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2012 Apr;130(4):497-505.
  18. Anderson RR, Parrish JA. Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation. Science 1983 Apr;220(4596):524-527.
  19. Realini T. Selective laser trabeculoplasty: a review. J Glaucoma 2008 Sep;17(6):497-502.
  20. Latina MA, Park C. Selective targeting of trabecular meshwork cells: in vitro studies of pulsed and CW laser interactions. Exp Eye Res 1995 Apr;60(4):359-371.
  21. Holz HA, Lim MC. Glaucoma lasers: a review of the newer techniques. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2005 Apr;16(2):89-93.
  22. Stein JD, Challa P. Mechanisms of action and efficacy of argon laser trabeculoplasty and selective laser trabeculoplasty. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2007 Mar;18(2):140-145.
  23. Melamed S, Pei J, Epstein DL. Short-term effect of argon laser trabeculoplasty in monkeys. Arch Ophthalmol 1985 Oct;103(10):1546-1552.
  24. Bradley JM, Anderssohn AM, Colvis CM, Parshley DE, Zhu XH, Ruddat MS, Samples JR, Acott TS. Mediation of laser trabeculoplasty-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression by IL-1beta and TNFalpha. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000 Feb;41(2):422-430.
  25. Alvarado JA, Katz LJ, Trivedi S, Shifera AS. Monocyte modulation of aqueous outflow and recruitment to the trabecular meshwork following selective laser trabeculoplasty. Arch Ophthalmol 2010 Jun;128(6):731-737.
  26. Alvarado JA, Iguchi R, Martinez J, Trivedi S, Shifera AS. Similar effects of selective laser trabeculoplasty and prostaglandin analogs on the permeability of cultured Schlemm canal cells. Am J Ophthalmol 2010 Aug;150(2):254-264.
  27. Epstein DL, Rohen JW. Morphology of the trabecular meshwork and inner-wall endothelium after cationized ferritin perfusion in the monkey eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1991 Jan;32(1):160-171.
  28. Kramer TR, Noecker RJ. Comparison of the morphologic changes after selective laser trabeculoplasty and argon laser trabeculoplasty in human eye bank eyes. Ophthalmology 2001 Apr;108(4):773-779.
  29. Latina MA. Selective laser trabeculoplasty-180-degree treatment. J Glaucoma 2007 Mar;16(2):274-275.
  30. Chen E, Golchin S, Blomdahl S. A comparison between 90 degrees and 180 degrees selective laser trabeculoplasty. J Glaucoma 2004 Feb;13(1):62-65.
  31. Nagar M, Ogunyomade A, O'Brart DP, Howes F, Marshall J. A randomised, prospective study comparing selective laser trabeculoplasty with latanoprost for the control of intraocular pressure in ocular hypertension and open angle glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2005 Nov;89(11):1413-1417.
  32. Shibata M, Sugiyama T, Ishida O, Ueki M, Kojima S, Okuda T, Ikeda T. Clinical results of selective laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma in Japanese eyes: comparison of 180 degree with 360 degree SLT. J Glaucoma 2012 Jan;21(1):17-21.
  33. George MK, Emerson JW, Cheema SA, McGlynn R, Ford BA, Martone JF, Shields MB, Wand M. Evaluation of a modified protocol for selective laser trabeculoplasty. J Glaucoma 2008 Apr-May;17(3):197-202.
  34. Latina MA, Sibayan SA, Shin DH, Noecker RJ, Marcellino G. Q-switched 532-nm Nd:YAG laser trabeculoplasty (selective laser trabeculoplasty): a multicenter, pilot, clinical study. Ophthalmology 1998 Nov;105(11):2082-2090.
  35. Allf BE, Shields MB. Early intraocular pressure response to laser trabeculoplasty 180 degrees without apraclonidine versus 360 degrees with apraclonidine. Ophthalmic Surg 1991 Sep;22(9):539-542.
  36. Barkana Y, Belkin M. Selective laser trabeculoplasty. Surv Ophthalmol 2007 Nov-Dec;52(6):634-654.
  37. Nagar, M. Selective laser trabeculoplasty. In: Garg A, Rosen E, editors. Instant clinical diagnosis in ophthalmology: Glaucoma. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher Ltd; 2009. p. 298-307.
  38. Nakakura S, Imamura H, Nakamura T. Selective laser trabeculoplasty for glaucoma after penetrating keratoplasty. Optom Vis Sci 2009 Apr;86(4):e404-e406.
  39. Bozkurt E, Kara N, Yazici AT, Yuksel K, Demirok A, Yilmaz OF, Demir S. Prophylactic selective laser trabeculoplasty in the prevention of intraocular pressure elevation after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection. Am J Ophthalmol 2011 Dec;152(6):976-981.e2.
  40. Baser E, Seymenoglu R. Selective laser trabeculoplasty for the treatment of intraocular pressure elevation after intravitreal triamcinolone injection. Can J Ophthalmol 2009 Jun;44(3).e21.
  41. Ho CL, Lai JS, Aquino MV, Rojanapongpun P, Wong HT, Aquino MC, Gerber Y, Belkin M, Barkana Y. Selective laser trabeculoplasty for primary angle closure with persistently elevated intraocular pressure after iridotomy. J Glaucoma 2009 Sep;18(7):563-566.
  42. Samples JR, Singh K, Lin SC, Francis BA, Hodapp E, Jampel HD, Smith SD. Laser trabeculoplasty for open-angle glaucoma: a report by the American academy of ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2011 Nov;118(11):2296-2302.
  43. Rolim de Moura C, Paranhos A Jr, Wormald R. Laser trabeculoplasty for open angle glaucoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 Oct;17(4).
  44. Juzych MS, Chopra V, Banitt MR, Hughes BA, Kim C, Goulas MT, Shin DH. Comparison of long-term outcomes of selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty in openangle glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2004 Oct;111(10):1853-1859.
  45. Damji KF, Bovell AM, Hodge WG, Rock W, Shah K, Buhrmann R, Pan YI. Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty: results from a 1-year randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Dec; 90(12):1490-1494.
  46. Martinez-de-la-Casa JM, Garcia-Feijoo J, Castillo A, Matilla M, Macias JM, Benitez-del-Castillo JM, Garcia-Sanchez J. Selective vs argon laser trabeculoplasty: hypotensive efficacy, anterior chamber inflammation and postoperative pain. Eye (Lond) 2004 May;18(5):498-502.
  47. Russo V, Barone A, Cosma A, Stella A, Delle Noci N. Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty in patients with uncontrolled open-angle glaucoma. Eur J Ophthalmol 2009 May-Jun;19(3):429-434.
  48. Liu Y, Birt CM. Argon versus selective laser trabeculoplasty in younger patients: 2-year results. J Glaucoma 2012 Feb;21(2):112-115.
  49. Bovell AM, Damji KF, Hodge WG, Rock WJ, Buhrmann RR, Pan YI. Long-term effects on the lowering of intraocular pressure: selective laser or argon laser trabeculoplasty? Can J Ophthalmol 2011 Oct;46(5):408-413.
  50. Nagar M, Luhishi E, Shah N. Intraocular pressure control and fluctuation: The effect of treatment with selective laser trabeculoplasty. Br J Ophthalmol 2009 Apr;93(4):497-501.
  51. Gracner T. Intraocular pressure response to selective laser trabeculoplasty in the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmologica 2001 Jul-Aug;215(4):267-270.
  52. Gracner T. Intraocular pressure response of capsular glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma to selective Nd:YAG laser trabeculoplasty: a prospective, comparative clinical trial. Eur J Ophthalmol 2002 Jul-Aug;12(4):287-292.
  53. Lai JS, Chua JK, Tham CC, Lam DS. Five-year follow-up of selective laser trabeculoplasty in Chinese eyes. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2004 Aug;32(4):368-372.
  54. Cvenkel B. One-year follow-up of selective laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmologica 2004 Jan-Feb;218(1):20-25.
  55. Francis BA, Ianchulev T, Schofield JK, Minckler DS. Selective laser trabeculoplasty as a replacement for medical therapy in openangle glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2005 Sep;140(3):524-525.
  56. Klamann MK, Maier AK, Gonnermann J, Ruokonen PC. Adverse effects and short-term results after selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT). J Glaucoma 2014 Feb;23(2):105-108.
  57. Kajiya S, Hayakawa K, Sawaguchi S. Clinical results of selective laser trabeculoplasty. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2000 Sep;44(5):574-575.
  58. Shazly TA, Latina MA. Intraocular pressure response to selective laser trabeculoplasty in the first treated eye vs the fellow eye. Arch Ophthalmol 2011 Jun;129(6):699-702.
  59. Shazly TA, Latina MA, Dagianis JJ, Chitturi S. Effect of prior cataract surgery on the long-term outcome of selective laser trabeculoplasty. Clin Ophthalmol 2011;5:377-380.
  60. Gracner T, Falez M, Gracner B, Pahor D. Long-term followup of selective laser trabeculoplasty in primary open-angle glaucoma. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2006 Sep;223(9):743-747. (Ger).
  61. Melamed S, Ben Simon GJ, Levkovitch-Verbin H. Selective laser trabeculoplasty as primary treatment for open-angle glaucoma: a prospective, nonrandomized pilot study. Arch Ophthalmol 2003 Jul;121(7):957-960.
  62. Koucheki B, Hashemi H. Selective laser trabeculoplasty in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2012 Jan;21(1):65-70.
  63. Thatsnarong D, Ngamchittiampai C, Phoksunthorn T. One year results of selective laser trabeculoplasty in the treatment of primary open angle glaucoma. J Med Assoc Thai 2010 Feb;93(2):211-214.
  64. Tokuda N, Inoue J, Yamazaki I, Matsuzawa A, Munemasa Y, Kitaoka Y, Takagi H, Ueno S. Effects of selective laser trabeculoplasty treatment in steroid-induced glaucoma. Nihon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 2012 Aug;116(8):751-757. (Jpn).
  65. Best UP, Domack H, Schmidt V. Pressure reduction after selective laser trabeculoplasty with two different laser systems and after argon laser trabeculoplasty—a controlled prospective clinical trial on 284 eyes. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2007 Mar;224(3):173-179. (Ger).
  66. Van de Veire S, Zeyen T, Stalmans I. Argon versus selective laser trabeculoplasty. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol 2006;(299): 5-10.
  67. Beltran-Agullo L, Alaghband P, Obi A, Husain R, Lim KS. The effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty on aqueous humor dynamics in patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2013 Dec;22(9):746-749.
  68. El Mallah MK, Walsh MM, Stinnett SS, Asrani SG. Selective laser trabeculoplasty reduces mean IOP and IOP variation in normal tension glaucoma patients. Clin Ophthalmol 2010 Aug;4:889-893.
  69. Goldenfeld M, Geyer O, Segev E, Kaplan-Messas A, Melamed S. Selective laser trabeculoplasty in uncontrolled pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2011 Sep-Oct;42(5):390-393.
  70. Ayala M, Chen E. Comparison of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Clin Ophthalmol 2011;5:1469-1473.
  71. Shazly TA, Smith J, Latina MA. Long-term safety and efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty as primary therapy for the treatment of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma compared with primary open-angle glaucoma. Clin Ophthalmol 2010 Dec;5:5-10.
  72. Yuki K, Inoue M, Shiba D, Kawamura R, Ishida S, Ohtake Y. Selective laser trabeculoplasty for elevated intraocular pressure following subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Clin Ophthalmol 2010 Apr;4:247-249.
  73. Mansouri K, Mariani A, Ravinet E. Reconditioning of the trabeculo-descemet's membrane with the 532-nm Nd:YAG (SLT) laser after deep sclerectomy. Eye (Lond) 2011 Dec;25(12):1655-1657.
  74. Rubin B, Taglienti A, Rothman RF, Marcus CH, Serle JB. The effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty on intraocular pressure in patients with intravitreal steroid-induced elevated intraocular pressure. J Glaucoma 2008 Jun-Jul;17(4):287-292.
  75. McIlraith I, Strasfeld M, Colev G, Hutnik CM. Selective laser trabeculoplasty as initial and adjunctive treatment for openangle glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2006 Apr;15(2):124-130.
  76. van der Valk R, Webers CA, Schouten JS, Zeegers MP, Hendrikse F, Prins MH. Intraocular pressure-lowering effects of all commonly used glaucoma drugs: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ophthalmology 2005 Jul;112(7): 1177-1185.
  77. Katz LJ, Steinmann WC, Kabir A, Molineaux J, Wizov SS, Marcellino G. Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medical therapy as initial treatment of glaucoma: a prospective, randomized trial. J Glaucoma 2012 Sep;21(7):460-468.
  78. Heijl A, Peters D, Leske MC, Bengtsson B. Effects of argon laser trabeculoplasty in the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial. Am J Ophthalmol 2011 Nov;152(5):842-848.
  79. Bruen R, Lesk MR, Harasymowycz P. Baseline factors predictive of SLT response: a prospective study. J Ophthalmol 2012;2012:1-5.
  80. Tzimis V, Tze L, Ganesh J, Muhsen S, Kiss A, Kranemann C, Birt CM. Laser trabeculoplasty: an investigation into factors that might influence outcomes. Can J Ophthalmol 2011 Aug;46(4):305-309.
  81. Johnson PB, Katz LJ, Rhee DJ. Selective laser trabeculoplasty: predictive value of early intraocular pressure measurements for success at 3 months. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Jun;90(6):741-743.
  82. Higginbotham EJ. Reaffirming the role of the laser in glaucoma management. Arch Ophthalmol 1999 Aug;117(8):1075-1076.
  83. Song J, Lee PP, Epstein DL, Stinnett SS, Herndon LW Jr, Asrani SG, Allingham RR, Challa P. High failure rate associated with 180 degrees selective laser trabeculoplasty. J Glaucoma 2005 Oct;14(5):400-408.
  84. Hodge WG, Damji KF, Rock W, Buhrmann R, Bovell AM, Pan Y. Baseline IOP predicts selective laser trabeculoplasty success at 1 year post-treatment: Results from a randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2005 Sep;89(9):1157-1160.
  85. Weinreb RN, Ruderman J, Juster R, Zweig K. Immediate intraocular pressure response to argon laser trabeculoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol 1983 Mar;95(3):279-286.
  86. Rasmussen CA, Kaufman PL. Primate glaucoma models. J Glaucoma 2005 Aug;14(4):311-314.
  87. Tang M, Fu Y, Ma Y, Fu MS, Fan Y, Sun XD, Xu X. The efficacy of low-energy selective laser trabeculoplasty. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2011 Oct;47(10):887-892. (Chn).
  88. Kano K, Kuwayama Y, Mizoue S, Ito N. Clinical results of selective laser trabeculoplasty. Nihon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 1999 Aug;103(8):612-616. (Jpn).
  89. Saito Y, Higashide T, Sugiyama K. Clinical results of selective laser trabeculoplasty as adjunctive treatment for primary openangle glaucoma patients. Nihon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 2007 Dec;111(12):953-958. (Jpn).
  90. Shazly TA, Latina MA, Dagianis JJ, Chitturi S. Effect of central corneal thickness on the long-term outcome of selective laser trabeculoplasty as primary treatment for ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. Cornea 2012 Aug;31(8):883-886.
  91. Gracner T, Naji M, Hudovernik M, Gracner B, Pahor D. Predictive factors of successful selective laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2007 Dec;224(12):922-926. (Ger).
  92. Greenfield DS, Liebmann JM, Ritch R. Brimonidine: a new alpha2- adrenoreceptor agonist for glaucoma treatment. J Glaucoma 1997 Aug;6(4):250-258.
  93. Glaucoma Laser Trial Research Group. The Glaucoma Laser Trial. I. Acute effects of argon laser trabeculoplasty on intraocular pressure. Arch Ophthalmol 1989 Aug;107(8):1135-1142.
  94. Damji KF, Shah KC, Rock WJ, Bains HS, Hodge WG. Selective laser trabeculoplasty vs argon laser trabeculoplasty: a prospective randomised clinical trial. Br J Ophthalmol 1999 Jun;83(6):718-722.
  95. Harasymowycz PJ, Papamatheakis DG, Latina M, De Leon M, Lesk MR, Damji KF. Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) complicated by intraocular pressure elevation in eyes with heavily pigmented trabecular meshworks. Am J Ophthalmol 2005 Jun;139(6):1110-1113.
  96. White AJ, Mukherjee A, Hanspal I, Sarkies NJ, Martin KR, Shah P. Acute transient corneal endothelial changes following selective laser trabeculoplasty. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2013 Jul;41(5):435-41.
  97. Rhee DJ, Krad O, Pasquale LR. Hyphema following selective laser trabeculoplasty. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2009 Sep- Oct;40(5):493-494.
  98. Holz H, Pirouzian A. Bilateral diffuse lamellar keratitis following consecutive selective laser trabeculoplasty in LASIK patient. J Cataract Refract Surg 2010 May;36(5):847-849.
  99. Hong BK, Winer JC, Martone JF, Wand M, Altman B, Shields B. Repeat selective laser trabeculoplasty. J Glaucoma 2009 Mar;18(3):180-183.
  100. Geyer O, Wolf A, Levinger E, Orev T, Segev E. Selective laser trabeculoplasty treatment for medication-refractory open angle glaucoma. Harefuah 2005 Nov;144(11):790-821. (Heb).
  101. Seider MI, Keenan JD, Han Y. Cost of selective laser trabeculoplasty vs topical medications for glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2012 Apr;130(4):529-530.
  102. Cantor LB, Katz LJ, Cheng JW, Chen E, Tong KB, Peabody JW. Economic evaluation of medication, laser trabeculoplasty and filtering surgeries in treating patients with glaucoma in the US. Curr Med Res Opin 2008 Oct;24(10):2905-2918.
  103. Taylor HR. Glaucoma: where to now? Ophthalmology 2009 May;116(5):821-822.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.