Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice

Register      Login

VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Ocular and Systemic Factors Associated with Glaucoma

Meghal Gagrani, Kanchan Satpute, Namrata Sharma

Keywords : Disorder, Glaucoma, Intraocular pressure, Systemic disease

Citation Information : Gagrani M, Satpute K, Sharma N. Ocular and Systemic Factors Associated with Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2022; 16 (3):179-191.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1383

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 23-01-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness in the world. Although numerous factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, the main focus of management still remains lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) by medical or surgical therapy. However, a major challenge is that many glaucoma patients continue to progress despite good control of IOP. In this regard, the importance of other coexisting factors that may contribute to disease progression needs to be explored. Ophthalmologists need to be aware of ocular risk factors and the impact of systemic diseases and their medications, along with lifestyle modifications on the course of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and adopt a holistic approach in treating the eye as well as the patient to alleviate the suffering from glaucoma in a comprehensive manner.

PDF Share
  1. Worley A, Grimmer-Somers K. Risk factors for glaucoma: what do they really mean? Aust J Prim Health 2011;17(3):233. DOI: 10.1071/py10042
  2. Guedes G, Tsai JC, Loewen NA. Glaucoma and aging. CAS 2011;4(2):110–117. DOI: 10.2174/1874609811104020110
  3. Jammal AA, Berchuck SI, Thompson AC, et al. The effect of age on increasing susceptibility to retinal nerve fiber layer loss in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020;61(13):8. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.61.13.8
  4. Allison K, Patel DG, Greene L. Racial and ethnic disparities in primary open-angle glaucoma clinical trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4(5):e218348. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.8348
  5. Yip JLY, Foster PJ. Ethnic differences in primary angle-closure glaucoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2006;17(2):175–180. DOI: 10.1097/
  6. Wang K, Gaitsch H, Poon H, et al. Classification of common human diseases derived from shared genetic and environmental determinants. Nat Genet 2017;49(9):1319–1325. DOI: 10.1038/ng.3931
  7. Wolfs RC, Klaver CC, Ramrattan RS, et al. Genetic risk of primary open-angle glaucoma. Population-based familial aggregation study. Arch Ophthalmol 1998;116(12):1640–1645. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.116.12.1640
  8. Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR. Genetics of glaucoma. Hum Mol Genet 2017;26(R1):R21–R27. DOI: 10.13039/100000002
  9. Jindal V. Glaucoma: an extension of various chronic neurodegenerative Disorders. Mol Neurobiol 2013;48(1):186–189. DOI: 10.1007/s12035-013-8416-8
  10. Kavitha S, Zebardast N, Palaniswamy K, et al. Family history is a strong risk factor for prevalent angle closure in a South Indian population. Ophthalmology 2014;121(11):2091–2097. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.05.001
  11. Buys YM, Jin YP. Canadian Glaucoma Risk Factor Study Group, Socioeconomic status as a risk factor for late presentation of glaucoma in Canada. Can J Ophthalmol 2013;48(2):83–87. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcjo.2012.10.003
  12. Abu Hussein NB, Eissa IM, Abdel-Kader AA. Analysis of factors affecting patients’ compliance to topical antiglaucoma medications in Egypt as a developing country model. J Ophthalmol 2015;2015:1–7. DOI: 10.1155/2015/234157
  13. Kim AY, Han KE, Jun RM, et al. Progression of visual field loss and body mass index in normal tension glaucoma. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 2017;58(12):1404–1409. DOI: 10.3341/jkos.2017.58.12.1404
  14. Copt RP, Thomas R, Mermoud A. Corneal thickness in ocular hypertension, primary open-angle glaucoma, and normal tension glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117(1):14–16. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.117.1.14
  15. Medeiros FA, Weinreb RN. Is corneal thickness an independent risk factor for glaucoma? Ophthalmology 2012;119(3):435–436. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.01.018
  16. Zimprich L, Diedrich J, Bleeker A, et al. Corneal hysteresis as a biomarker of glaucoma: current insights. Clin Ophthalmol 2020;14:2255–2264. DOI: 10.2147/OPTH.S236114
  17. Deol M, Taylor DA, Radcliffe NM. Corneal hysteresis and its relevance to glaucoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2015;26(2):96–102. DOI: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000130
  18. Gordon MO. The ocular hypertension treatment study: baseline factors that predict the onset of primary open-angle glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120(6):714–720. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.120.6.714
  19. Jonas JB, Martus P, Horn FK, et al. Predictive factors of the optic nerve head for development or progression of glaucomatous visual field loss. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004;45(8):2613–2618. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.03-1274
  20. Xu L, Cao WF, Wang YX, et al. Anterior chamber depth and chamber angle and their associations with ocular and general parameters: the beijing eye study. Am J Ophthalmol 2008;145(5):929–936. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2008.01.004
  21. Marcus MW, de Vries MM, Montolio FGJ, et al. Myopia as a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 2011;118(10):1989–1994. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.03.012
  22. Mo J, Duan A, Chan S, et al. Vascular flow density in pathological myopia: an optical coherence tomography angiography study. BMJ Open 2017;7(2):e013571. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013571
  23. Ha A, Kim YK, Park YJ, et al. Intraocular pressure change during reading or writing on smartphone. PLoS One 2018;13(10):e0206061. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206061
  24. Cho H, Kee C. Population-based glaucoma prevalence studies in Asians. Surv Ophthalmol 2014;59(4):434–437. DOI: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2013.09.003
  25. Chung SD, Ho JD, Chen CH, et al. Dementia is associated with open-angle glaucoma: a population-based study. Eye 2015;29(10):1340–1346. DOI: 10.1038/eye.2015.120
  26. Daveckaite A, Grusauskiene E, Petrikonis K, et al. Cognitive functions and normal tension glaucoma. Indian J Ophthalmol 2017;65(10):974–978. DOI: 10.4103/ijo.ijo_756_16
  27. Ehrlich JR, Moroi SE. Glaucoma, cognitive decline, and healthy aging. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;135(7):740–741. DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.1278
  28. Yan Z, Liao H, Chen H, et al. Elevated intraocular pressure induces amyloid-β deposition and tauopathy in the lateral geniculate nucleus in a monkey model of glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017;58(12):5434–5443. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.17-22312
  29. Helmer C, Malet F, Rougier M-B, et al. Is there a link between open-angle glaucoma and dementia? the three-city-alienor cohort. Ann Neurol 2013;74(2):171–179. DOI: 10.1002/ana.23926
  30. Barbara N, Wojciech L, Krystyna H, et al. Glaucoma in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2022];07(1). Available from:
  31. Scheife RT, Schumock GT, Burstein A, et al. Impact of Parkinson's disease and its pharmacologic treatment on quality of life and economic outcomes. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57(10):953–962. DOI: 10.1093/ajhp/57.10.953
  32. Harnois C, Di Paolo T. Decreased dopamine in the retinas of patients with Parkinson's disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1990;31(11):2473–2475.
  33. Carreras FJ. Glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, two kindred diseases? Neural Regen Res 2016;11(9):1415–1417. DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.191211
  34. Maruyama H, Morino H, Ito H, et al. Mutations of optineurin in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nature 2010;465(7295):223–226. DOI: 10.1038/nature08971
  35. Rezaie T, Child A, Hitchings R, et al. Adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma caused by mutations in optineurin. Science 2002;295(5557):1077–1079. DOI: 10.1126/science.1066901
  36. Rowe FJ, Wright D, Brand D, et al. A prospective profile of visual field loss following stroke: prevalence, type, rehabilitation, and outcome. Biomed Res Int 2013;2013:719096. DOI: 10.1155/2013/719096
  37. Rim TH, Lee SY, Bae HW, et al. Increased stroke risk among patients with open-angle glaucoma: a 10-year follow-up cohort study. Br J Ophthalmol 2018;102(3):338–343. DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310415
  38. Ho JD, Hu CC, Lin HC. Open-angle glaucoma and the risk of stroke development: a 5-Year population-based follow-up study. Stroke 2009;40(8):2685–2690. DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.554642
  39. Tan Z, Tung T-H, Xu S-Q, et al. Personality types of patients with glaucoma: A systematic review of observational studies. Medicine 2021;100(23):e25914. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000025914
  40. Zhang X, Olson DJ, Le P, et al. The association between glaucoma, anxiety, and depression in a large population. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;183:37–41. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2017.07.021
  41. Gramer G, Weber BHF, Gramer E. Migraine and vasospasm in glaucoma: age-related evaluation of 2027 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(13):7999–8007. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.15-17274
  42. Xu C, Li J, Li Z, et al. Migraine as a risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2018;97(28):e11377. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000011377
  43. Nguyen BN, Lek JJ, Vingrys AJ, et al. Clinical impact of migraine for the management of glaucoma patients. Prog Retin Eye Res 2016;51:107–124. DOI: 10.13039/501100000925
  44. Davis BM, Crawley L, Pahlitzsch M, et al. Glaucoma: the retina and beyond. Acta Neuropathol 2016;132(6):807–826. DOI: 10.13039/501100001285
  45. Kräuchi K, Cajochen C, Pache M, et al. Thermoregulatory effects of melatonin in relation to sleepiness. Chronobiol Int 2006;23(1–2):475–484. DOI: 10.1080/07420520500545854
  46. Pache M, Kräuchi K, Cajochen C, et al. Cold feet and prolonged sleep-onset latency in vasospastic syndrome. Lancet 2001;358(9276):125–126. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)05344-2
  47. Konieczka K, Flammer J. Treatment of glaucoma patients with flammer syndrome. J Clin Med 2021;10(18):4227. DOI: 10.3390/jcm10184227
  48. Yanagi M, Kawasaki R, Wang JJ, et al. Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review: vascular risk factors in glaucoma. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2011;39(3):252–258. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2010.02455.x
  49. Grieshaber MC, Mozaffarieh M, Flammer J. What is the link between vascular dysregulation and glaucoma? Surv Ophthalmol 2007;52(6):S144–S154. DOI: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2007.08.010
  50. Flammer J, Pache M, Resink T. Vasospasm, its role in the pathogenesis of diseases with particular reference to the eye. Prog Retin Eye Res 2001;20(3):319–349. DOI: 10.1016/s1350-9462(00)00028-8
  51. Langman MJ, Lancashire RJ, Cheng KK, et al. Systemic hypertension and glaucoma: mechanisms in common and co-occurrence. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89(8):960–963. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.2004.053397
  52. Punjabi OS, Stamper RL, Bostrom AG, et al. Does treated systemic hypertension affect progression of optic nerve damage in glaucoma suspects? Curr Eye Res 2007;32(2):153–160. DOI: 10.1080/02713680601114955
  53. Le A, Mukesh BN, McCarty CA, et al. Risk factors associated with the incidence of open-angle glaucoma: the visual impairment project. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44(9):3783–3789. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.03-0077
  54. Zheng W, Dryja TP, Wei Z, et al. Systemic medication associations with presumed advanced or uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2018;125(7):984–993. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.01.007
  55. Netland PA. Beta-blocker eyedrops and nocturnal arterial hypotension. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;129(5):697–698. DOI: 10.1016/s0002-9394(00)00421-9
  56. Leske MC, Heijl A, Hyman L, et al. Predictors of long-term progression in the early manifest glaucoma trial. Ophthalmology 2007;114(11):1965–1972. DOI: 10.1016/s0084-392x(08)79159-7
  57. Leske MC, Wu SY, Nemesure B, et al. Incident open-angle glaucoma and blood pressure. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120(7):954–959. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.120.7.954
  58. Park HY, Park SH, Park CK. Central visual field progression in normal-tension glaucoma patients with autonomic dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55(4):2557–2563. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.13-13742
  59. Kurysheva NI, Shlapak VN, Ryabova TY. Heart rate variability in normal tension glaucoma: a case–control study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2018;97(5):e9744. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009744
  60. Susanna R Jr, De Moraes CG, Cioffi GA, et al. Why do people (still) go blind from glaucoma? Transl Vis Sci Technol 2015;4(2):1. DOI: 10.1167/tvst.4.2.1
  61. Mozaffarieh M, Flammer J. Is there more to glaucoma treatment than lowering IOP? Surv Ophthalmol 2007;52(6):S174–S179. DOI: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2007.08.013
  62. Chen YY, Hu HY, Chu D, et al. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma may develop ischemic heart disease more often than those without glaucoma: an 11-year population-based cohort study. PLoS One 2016;11(9):e0163210. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163210
  63. Flammer J, Konieczka K, Bruno RM, et al. The eye and the heart. Eur Heart J 2013;34(17):1270–1278. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht023
  64. Nieminen T, Lehtimäki T, Mäenpää J, et al. Ophthalmic timolol: plasma concentration and systemic cardiopulmonary effects. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2007;67(2):237–245. DOI: 10.1080/00365510601034736
  65. Lee AJ, Wang JJ, Kifley A, et al. Open-angle glaucoma and cardiovascular mortality: the Blue Mountains Eye study. Ophthalmology 2006;113(7):1069–1076. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.02.062
  66. Meuche C, Heidrich H, Bleckmann H. [Raynaud syndrome following timolol-containing eyedrops]. Fortschr Ophthalmol 1990;87(1):45–47.
  67. Coleman AL, Diehl DL, Jampel HD, et al. Topical timolol decreases plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Arch Ophthalmol 1990;108(9):1260–1263. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.1990.01070110076028
  68. Leren P. Effect of alpha- and beta-blocker therapy on blood lipids: European experience. Am J Med 1984;76(2):67–71. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9343(84)90958-6
  69. McGwin G Jr, McNeal S, Owsley C, et al. Statins and other cholesterol-lowering medications and the presenceof glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122(6):822–826. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.122.6.822
  70. Honjo M, Tanihara H, Nishijima K, et al. Statin inhibits leukocyte-endothelial interaction and prevents neuronal death induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat retina. Arch Ophthalmol 2002;120(12):1707–1713. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.120.12.1707
  71. Chen HY, Hsu SY, Chang YC, et al. Association between statin use and open-angle glaucoma in hyperlipidemia patients: a taiwanese population-based case-control study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015;94(45):e2018. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002018
  72. Huerta C, García Rodríguez LA, Möller CS, et al. The risk of obstructive airways disease in a glaucoma population: obstructive airways disease in a glaucoma population. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2001;10(2):157–163. DOI: 10.1002/pds.567
  73. Kaiserman I, Fendyur A, Vinker S. Topical beta blockers in asthmatic patients–is it safe? Curr Eye Res 2009;34(7):517–522. DOI: 10.1080/02713680902989337
  74. Waldock A, Snape J, Graham CM. Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. Br J Ophthalmol 2000;84(7):710–713. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.84.7.710
  75. Bilgin G. Normal-tension glaucoma and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a prospective study. BMC Ophthalmol 2014;14(1):27. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-14-27
  76. Chaitanya A, Pai V, Mohapatra A, et al. Glaucoma and its association with obstructive sleep apnea: a narrative review. Oman J Ophthalmol 2016;9(3):125–134. DOI: 10.4103/0974-620X.192261
  77. Spicuzza L, Caruso D, Di Maria G. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and its management. Ther Adv Chronic Dis 2015;6(5):273–285. DOI: 10.1177/2040622315590318
  78. Kiekens S, Veva De Groot, Coeckelbergh T, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy is associated with an increase in intraocular pressure in obstructive sleep apnea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008;49(3):934–940. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.06-1418
  79. Nongpiur ME, Wong TY, Sabanayagam C, et al. Chronic kidney disease and intraocular pressure. Ophthalmology 2010;117(3):477–483. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.07.029
  80. Howlett SA. Renal failure associated with acetazolamide therapy for glaucoma. South Med J 1975;68(4):504–506. DOI: 10.1097/00007611-197504000-00026
  81. Higenbottam T, Ogg CS, Saxton HM. Acute renal failure from the use of acetazolamide (Diamox). Postgrad Med J 1978;54(628):127–128. DOI: 10.1136/pgmj.54.628.127
  82. Hu J, Bui KM, Patel KH, et al. Effect of hemodialysis on intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013;131(12):1525–1531. DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.5599
  83. Tawil R, Moxley RT, Griggs RC. Acetazolamide-induced nephrolithiasis: implications for treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Neurology 1993;43(6):1105–1106. DOI: 10.1212/wnl.43.6.1105
  84. Zhao YX, Chen XW. Diabetes and risk of glaucoma: systematic review and a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Ophthalmol 2017;10(9):1430–1435. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.16
  85. Nakamura M, Kanamori A, Negi A. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Ophthalmologica 2005;219(1):1–10. DOI: 10.1159/000081775
  86. Sato T, Roy S. Effect of high glucose on fibronectin expression and cell proliferation in trabecular meshwork cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43(1):170–175.
  87. Eadie BD, Etminan M, Carleton BC, et al. Association of repeated intravitreous bevacizumab injections with risk for glaucoma surgery. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017;135(4):363–368. DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.0059
  88. Faiq MA, Dada T. Diabetes type 4: a paradigm shift in the understanding of glaucoma, the brain specific diabetes and the candidature of insulin as a therapeutic agent. CMM Mol Med 2017;17(1):46–59. DOI: 10.2174/1566524017666170206153415
  89. Shin YU, Hong EH, Kang MH, et al. The association between female reproductive factors and open-angle glaucoma in Korean women: the Korean national Health and nutrition examination survey V. J Ophthalmol 2018;2018:2750786. DOI: 10.1155/2018/2750786
  90. Dewundara SS, Wiggs JL, Sullivan DA, et al. Is estrogen a therapeutic target for glaucoma? Semin Ophthalmol 2016;31(1–2):140–146. DOI: 10.3109/08820538.2015.1114845
  91. Alpogan O, Donmez EE, Balık AÖ, et al. Effects of testosterone on intraocular pressure, thicknesses of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell complex, macula and on ocular blood flow in female-to-male transgender persons. Int Ophthalmol 2021;41(11):3651–3661. DOI: 10.1007/s10792-021-01921-y
  92. Cross JM, Girkin CA, Owsley C, et al. The association between thyroid problems and glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol 2008;92(11):1503–1505. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.2008.147165
  93. Wang S, Liu Y, Zheng G. Hypothyroidism as a risk factor for open angle glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2017;12(10):e0186634. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186634
  94. Tsushima Y, Munshi LB, Taneja C, et al. Cushing disease masquerading as glaucoma. AACE Clin Case Rep 2019;5(5):e290–e293. DOI: 10.4158/ACCR-2019-0097
  95. Greco AV, Ricci B, Altomonte L, et al. GH secretion in open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmologica 1979;179(3):168–172. DOI: 10.1159/000308886
  96. Wolters TLC, Roerink SHPP, Drenthen LCA, et al. The course of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in patients with acromegaly during treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020;105(1):290–304. DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgz050
  97. Zeng J, Liu H, Liu X, et al. The relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and open-angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(9):5238–5245. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.15-17059
  98. Izzotti A, Sacca SC, Bagnis A, et al. Glaucoma and helicobacter pylori infection: correlations and controversies. Br J Ophthalmol 2009;93(11):1420–1427. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.2008.150409
  99. Kountouras J, Mylopoulos N, Boura P, et al. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and glaucoma11. Ophthalmology 2001;108(3):599–604. DOI: 10.1016/s0161-6420(00)00598-4
  100. Greco A, Rizzo MI, De Virgilio A, et al. Emerging concepts in glaucoma and review of the literature. Am J Med 2016;129(9):1000.e7–1000.e13. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.03.038
  101. Williamson J, Paterson RW, McGavin DD, et al. Posterior subcapsular cataracts and glaucoma associated with long-term oral corticosteroid therapy. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis and related conditions. Br J Ophthalmol 1969;53(6):361–372. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.53.6.361
  102. Bodh SA, Kumar V, Raina UK, et al. Inflammatory glaucoma. Oman J Ophthalmol 2011;4(1):3–9. DOI: 10.4103/0974-620x.77655
  103. Nicolela MT, Ferrier SN, Morrison CA, et al. Effects of cold-induced vasospasm in glaucoma: the role of endothelin-1. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44(6):2565–2572. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.02-0913
  104. Borgnakke WS. Does treatment of periodontal disease influence systemic disease? Dent Clin North Am 2015;59(4):885–917. DOI: 10.1016/j.cden.2015.06.007
  105. Lin SC, Pasquale LR, Singh K, et al. The association between body mass index and open-angle glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Journal of Glaucoma 2018;27(3):239–245. DOI: 10.1097/ijg.0000000000000867
  106. Wang YE, Tseng VL, Yu F, et al. Association of dietary fatty acid intake with glaucoma in the United States. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018;136(2):141–147. DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.5702
  107. Yoserizal M, Hirooka K, Yoneda M, et al. Associations of nutrient intakes with glaucoma among Japanese Americans. Medicine (Baltimore) 2019;98(49):e18314. DOI: 10.1097/md.0000000000018314
  108. KouassiNzoughet J, Chao de la Barca JM, Guehlouz K, et al. Nicotinamide deficiency in primary open-angle glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(7):2509–2514. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.19-27099
  109. Williams PA, Harder JM, Foxworth NE, et al. Vitamin B3 modulates mitochondrial vulnerability and prevents glaucoma in aged mice. Science 2017;355(6326):756–760. DOI: 10.1126/science.aal0092
  110. Roberti G, Oddone F, Agnifili L, et al. Steroid-induced glaucoma: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management. Surv Ophthalmol 2020;65(4):458–472. DOI: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2020.01.002
  111. Fabre-Guillevin E, Tchen N, Anibali-Charpiat MF, et al. Taxane-induced glaucoma. Lancet 1999;354(9185):1181–1182. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)73229-3
  112. Sugar HS, Airala MA. Introduction of some ophthalmic atropine ointments into the anterior chamber. Ann Ophthalmol 1972;4(5):367–374.
  113. Lachkar Y, Bouassida W. Drug-induced acute angle closure glaucoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2007;18(2):129–133. DOI: 10.1097/icu.0b013e32808738d5
  114. Pérez-de-Arcelus M, Toledo E, Martínez-González MÁ, et al. Smoking and incidence of glaucoma: the SUN cohort. Medicine (Baltimore) 2017;96(1):e5761. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000005761
  115. Chandrasekaran S, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P. Effects of caffeine on intraocular pressure: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. J Glaucoma 2005;14(6):504–507. DOI: 10.1097/
  116. Avisar R, Avisar E, Weinberger D. Effect of coffee consumption on intraocular pressure. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36(6):992–995. DOI: 10.1345/aph.1A279
  117. Lee TE, Yoo C, Kim YY. Effects of different sleeping postures on intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in healthy young subjects. Ophthalmology 2013;120(8):1565–1570. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.01.011
  118. Kaplowitz K, Blizzard S, Blizzard DJ, et al. Time spent in lateral sleep position and asymmetry in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(6):3869–3874. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.14-16079
  119. Schuman JS, Massicotte EC, Connolly S, et al. Increased intraocular pressure and visual field defects in high resistance wind instrument players. Ophthalmology 2000;107(1):127–133. DOI: 10.1016/s0161-6420(99)00015-9
  120. Lin SC, Zheng C, Waisbourd M, et al. Visual field changes in professional wind versus non-wind musical instrument players in the Philadelphia orchestra. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2018;13(3):224–230. DOI: 10.4103/jovr.jovr_155_17
  121. McMonnies CW. Glaucoma history and risk factors. J Optom 2017;10(2):71–78. DOI: 10.1016/j.optom.2016.02.003
  122. Vieira GM, Oliveira HB, de Andrade DT, et al. Intraocular pressure variation during weight lifting. Arch Ophthalmol 2006;124(9):1251–1254. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.124.9.1251
  123. Jasien JV, Jonas JB, de Moraes CG, et al. Intraocular pressure rise in subjects with and without glaucoma during four common yoga positions. PLoS One 2015;10(12):e0144505. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144505
  124. McMonnies CW. Intraocular pressure and glaucoma: is physical exercise beneficial or a risk? J Optom 2016;9(3):139–147. DOI: 10.1016/j.optom.2015.12.001
  125. Nwanaji-Enwerem JC, Wang W, Nwanaji-Enwerem O, et al. Association of long-term ambient black carbon exposure and oxidative stress allelic variants with intraocular pressure in older men. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;137(2):129–137. DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.5313
  126. Chua SYL, Khawaja AP, Morgan J, et al. The relationship between ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and glaucoma in a large community cohort. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(14):4915–4923. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.19-28346
  127. Vennam S, Georgoulas S, Khawaja A, et al. Heavy metal toxicity and the aetiology of glaucoma. Eye 2020;34(1):129–137. DOI: 10.1038/s41433-019-0672-z
  128. Apostoli P, Catalani S, Zaghini A, et al. High doses of cobalt induce optic and auditory neuropathy. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2013;65(6):719–727. DOI: 10.1016/j.etp.2012.09.006
  129. Nolan CV, Shaikh ZA. The vascular endothelium as a target tissue in acute cadmium toxicity. Life Sci 1986;39(16):1403–1409. DOI: 10.1016/0024-3205(86)90543-6
  130. Chung HS, Harris A, Evans DW, et al. Vascular aspects in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Surv Ophthalmol 1999;43:S43–S50. DOI: 10.1016/s0039-6257(99)00050-8
  131. Lee SH, Kang EM, Kim GA, et al. Three toxic heavy metals in open-angle glaucoma with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure: a cross-sectional study from South Korea. PLoS One 2016;11(10):e0164983. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164983
  132. Cooper GP, Suszkiw JB, Manalis RS. Heavy metals: effects on synaptic transmission. Neurotoxicology 1984;5(3):247–266.
  133. Ekinci M, Ceylan E, Cağatay HH, et al. Occupational exposure to lead decreases macular, choroidal, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in industrial battery workers. Curr Eye Res 2014;39(8):853–858. DOI: 10.3109/02713683.2013.877934
  134. Li Y, Andereggen L, Yuki K, et al. Mobile zinc increases rapidly in the retina after optic nerve injury and regulates ganglion cell survival and optic nerve regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017;114(2):E209–E218. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616811114
  135. Dada T, Mahalingam K, Gupta V. Allostatic load and glaucoma: are we missing the big picture? J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2020;14(2):47–49. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10078-1280
  136. Hahn SR. Patient-centered communication to assess and enhance patient adherence to glaucoma medication. Ophthalmology 2009;116(11 Suppl):S37–S42. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.06.023
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.