Aim: To investigate the long-term efficacy of adjunctive use of latanoprostene bunod (LBN), a new nitric oxide donating prostaglandin medication, in refractory cases of glaucoma at a tertiary care center.
Materials and methods: A review for patients who received add-on LBN was conducted from 1st January 2018 to 31st August 2020. A total of 33 patients (53 eyes) met the inclusion criteria of being on ≥3 topical medications, having an intraocular pressure measurement prior to starting LBN, and having adequate follow-up. Baseline demographics, prior treatments, adverse effects, and intraocular pressures measured at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months were recorded.
Results: Mean baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) [mm Hg ± standard deviation (SD)] was 19.9 ± 6.0. At 3 months, 49 eyes had a mean IOP of 17.3 ± 5.5 (p < 0.01) with an absolute reduction of 2.6 ± 6.6 and a percent reduction of 9 ± 28%. At 6 months, 35 eyes had a mean IOP of 17.2 ± 4.7 (p < 0.01) with an absolute reduction of 3.6 ± 7.4 and a percent reduction of 11 ± 30%. At 12 months, 28 eyes had a mean IOP of 16 ± 4.5 (p < 0.01) with an absolute reduction of 5.8 ± 7.4 and a percent reduction of 19 ± 38%. Over the course of the study, 18 eyes were lost to follow-up. Three eyes had a laser trabeculoplasty, and four eyes required incisional surgery. No eyes discontinued the medication due to adverse effects.
Conclusion: Adjunctive use of LBN in refractory glaucoma showed clinically and statistically significant IOP reductions at 3, 6, and 12-month time points. IOP reduction in patients was stable throughout the course of the study, with the largest decreases seen at the 12-month interval.
Clinical significance: LBN was well tolerated by patients and may be useful as an additive agent in providing long-term intraocular pressure reduction for patients with severe glaucoma on maximal therapy.
Quaranta L, Riva I, Gerardi C, et al. Quality of life in glaucoma: a review of the literature. Adv Ther 2016;33(6):959–981. DOI: 10.1007/s12325-016-0333-6
Tham YC, Li X, Wong TY, et al. Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 2014;121(11):2081–2090. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.05.013
Musch DC, Gillespie BW, Lichter PR, et al. Visual field progression in the collaborative initial glaucoma treatment study the impact of treatment and other baseline factors. Ophthalmology 2009;116(2):200–207. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.08.051
The AGIS Investigators. The advanced glaucoma intervention study (AGIS): 7. The relationship between control of intraocular pressure and visual field deterioration. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;130(4):429–440. DOI: 10.1016/s0002-9394(00)00538-9
De Moraes CG, Juthani VJ, Liebmann JM, et al. Risk factors for visual field progression in treated glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 2011;129(5):562–568. DOI: 10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.72
Peters D, Bengtsson B, Heijl A. Factors associated with lifetime risk of open-angle glaucoma blindness. Acta Ophthalmol 2014;92(5):421–425. DOI: 10.1111/aos.12203
Weinreb RN, Aung T, Medeiros FA. The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review. JAMA 2014;311(18):1901–1911. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2014.3192
Conlon R, Saheb H, Ahmed II. Glaucoma treatment trends: a review. Can J Ophthalmol 2017;52(1):114–124. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcjo.2016.07.013
Cavet ME, Vollmer TR, Harrington KL, et al. Regulation of endothelin-1-induced trabecular meshwork cell contractility by latanoprostene bunod. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(6):4108–4116. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.14-16015
Krauss AH, Impagnatiello F, Toris CB, et al. Ocular hypotensive activity of BOL-303259-X, a nitric oxide donating Prostaglandin F2α agonist, in preclinical models. Exp Eye Res 2011;93(3):250–255. DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2011.03.001
Weinreb RN, Liebmann JM, Martin KR, et al. Latanoprostene bunod 0.024% in subjects with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: pooled phase 3 study findings. J Glaucoma 2018;27(1):7–15. DOI: 10.1097/ijg.0000000000000831
Kawase K, Vittitow JL, Weinreb RN, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of latanoprostene bunod 0.024% in Japanese subjects with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: the JUPITER study. Adv Ther 2016;33(9):1612–1627. DOI: 10.1007/s12325-016-0385-7
Khouri AS, Serle JB, Bacharach J, et al. Once-daily netarsudil versus twice-daily timolol in patients with elevated intraocular pressure: the randomized phase 3 ROCKET-4 study. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;204:97–104. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2019.03.002
Shaw PX, Sang A, Wang Y, et al. Topical administration of a rock/net inhibitor promotes retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. Exp Eye Res 2016;158:33–42. DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2016.07.006
Weinreb RN, Scassellati Sforzolini B, Vittitow J, et al. Latanoprostene bunod 0.024% versus timolol maleate 0.5% in subjects with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: the APOLLO study. Ophthalmology 2016;123(5):965–973. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.01.019
Medeiros FA, Martin KR, Peace J, et al. Comparison of latanoprostene bunod 0.024% and timolol maleate 0.5% in open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: the LUNAR study. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;168:250–259. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2016.05.012
Mehta AA, Kanu LN, Sood-Mendiratta S, et al. Experience with netarsudil 0.02% and latanoprostene bunod 0.024% as adjunctive therapy for glaucoma. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;32(1):322–326. DOI: 10.1177/1120672121998913
Radell JE, Sharma HK, Auyeung KL, et al. Two-year experience with latanoprostene bunod in clinical practice. J Glaucoma 2021;30(9):776–780. DOI: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000001904
Jiang Y, Ondeck C. A review of new medications and future directions of medical therapies in glaucoma. Semin Ophthalmol 2020;35(5-6):280–286. DOI: 10.1080/08820538.2020.1818796
Neelakantan A, Vaishnav HD, Iyer SA, et al. Is addition of a third or fourth antiglaucoma medication effective? J Glaucoma 2004;13(2):130–1367. DOI: 10.1097/00061198-200404000-00008
Okeke CO, Burstein ES, Trubnik V, et al. Retrospective chart review on real-world use of latanoprostene bunod 0.024% in treatment-naïve patients with open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmol Ther 2020;9(4):1041–1053. DOI: 10.1007/s40123-020-00307-0