Aim and objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known systemic risk factor associated with glaucoma. The purpose of the study was to determine the overall prevalence of sleep apnea among patients with glaucoma.
Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Participants: Not applicable.
Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was performed through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL and gray literature using Clinical Trials.gov, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses and conferences held through the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, American Academy of Ophthalmology, and Canadian Society of Ophthalmology was done until June 10, 2020. Eligible articles were identified by reviewing the retrieved results. Data extracted included the total number of patients with glaucoma and the proportion of glaucoma patients with a co-occurring diagnosis of OSA. STATA 15.0 was used to perform the meta-analysis.
Results: 544 articles were gathered from the databases and 40 records were collected via the gray literature search. Ten studies with 956 subjects were included for analysis. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated a significant rate of OSA among glaucoma patients (ES = 0.17; CI: [0.08, 0.25]).
Conclusion: We examine the prevalence of OSA in glaucoma patients and conclude that the prevalence of OSA in glaucoma patients is higher.
Clinical significance: The findings in the ongoing investigation on the link between glaucoma and OSA continue to be unclear. The results from this study contribute to evidence of an association between the two diseases.
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