Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice

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VOLUME 11 , ISSUE 3 ( September-December, 2017 ) > List of Articles


Clinical Experience with the M4 Ahmed Glaucoma Drainage Implant

Ilya Sluch, Brett Gudgel, Justin Dvorak, Mary Anne Ahluwalia, Kai Ding, Steve Vold, Steven Sarkisian

Citation Information : Sluch I, Gudgel B, Dvorak J, Ahluwalia MA, Ding K, Vold S, Sarkisian S. Clinical Experience with the M4 Ahmed Glaucoma Drainage Implant. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017; 11 (3):92-96.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10028-1231

License: CC BY 3.0

Published Online: 01-12-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).



To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the M4 (porous polyethylene plate) Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) drainage implant in a multicenter retrospective study.

Materials and methods

A retrospective chart review of medical records of patients who had undergone the M4 Ahmed valve was performed from January 2013 to April 2015. The primary outcome measure was surgical failure defined as: Less than a 20% reduction in baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) to last follow-up visit, final IOP less than 5 mm Hg or greater than 18 mm Hg, reoperation for glaucoma, or loss of light perception vision. All eyes not meeting the above criteria were defined as success.


A total of 291 eyes met all study inclusion criteria. The average follow-up in the study was 6 months (±7.6 months) with 112 patients achieving 12-month follow-up (38.5%). 208 eyes (71.5%) met the study success criteria at final follow-up. No statistically significant spikes in postoperative IOP at 1 and 4 months were detected. The average preoperative IOP was 26.0 on an average of 2.8 medications. At 6 months, the average IOP dropped to 16.7 on 0.9 medications and stayed relatively stable at 15.8 on 1.2 medications at 12-month follow-up.


The M4 valve appears to have less of a hypertensive phase compared with the other Ahmed class valves with a similar safety profile. While 71.5% success rate was achieved at final follow-up, the failure rate steadily increased over time.

Clinical significance

While the M4 production has been discontinued, the porous design of the M4 may avoid a pressure spike in the Ahmed valve class and warrants future investigation for valve design.

How to cite this article

Sluch I, Gudgel B, Dvorak J, Ahluwalia MA, Ding K, Vold S, Sarkisian S. Clinical Experience with the M4 Ahmed Glaucoma Drainage Implant. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(3):92-96.

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